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122 Cards in this Set

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What type receptor are gustation receptors?
Chemoreceptors
What is the name of the receptor and where do you find them?
Taste buds
Mainly on tongue but also in soft palate, inside cheeks, pharynx, and epilottis.
State the two types of papillae, and where you find them.
Fungiform papillae (entire surface of the tongue)
Circumvallate papillae (the back of the tongue in an inverted V)
In what kind of epithelium are taste buds located in?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What are the two main cell types in the taste buds?
Gustatory cells and basal cells
In two types of papillae, where are taste buds found?
Fungiform papillae- apical surface of the tongue.
Circumvallate- In the side walls of the papilla.
List modalities of gustation.
(5)
Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
Which cranial nerve carry taste information to the brain?
Anterior 2/3-Facial nerve (VII)
Posterior 1/3-Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Epigottis and lower pharynx- Vagus nerve (X)
What type of receptor are olfactory receptors?
Chemoreceptors
What is the olfactory receptor?
Olfactory receptor cells in the epithelium of the roof of the nasal cavity.
What kind of epithelium is alfactory epithelim?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
What do you call the cell that continuously renew the olfactory receptor cells?
Basal cells
What do each olfactory receptor cells have on the apical surface?
Olfactory cilia
What do olfactory cilia do?
Is it motile?
It binds odor molecules and carry it to receptor proteins located in the plasma membrane of the cilia. It is immotile.
What covers the olfactory epithelium and what is the role of it?
Mucus. It capture and dissoves order molecules from the air.
What do you call the bundle fo the olfactory receptor nerves in the lamina propria connective tissue?
Filaments of olfactory nerve
Where do olfactory receptor nerve go through to reach the cranial area?
Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone.
What do you call the place where the olfactory receptor nerve synaps with another neuron?
Olfactory bulb
What kind of neuron do olfactory receptor nerve synap with?
Mitral cells
What do you call the synaptic cluster where the sysnap occur?
Glomeruli
How many modalities of olfaction are there.
Approximately 1000 types.
What crainial nerve is involved in olfaction?
Olfactory nerve (I)
How is the limbic system involved in olfaction?
The smell elicit emotion and activate limbic system.
What part of the brain decode the smell?
Piriform lobe
What do you call the damage to epithelim in the nose due to blow to the head, or cold/allergy? What is the result?
Anosmia.
Cannot smell.
What do you call the disorder that you perceive imaginary order?
Uncinate fits
What is the function of lacrimal gland?
Make tears(lacrimal fluid) to wash over the eyes and drain dust through lacrimal puncta(opening on the lacrimal papila),lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct and then to nasal cavity.
What do you call the transparent mucous membrane that cover the inner surfaces of the eyelids?
Conjunctiva
What do you call the inner eyelids side of conjunctiva?
Palpebral conjunctive
what do you call the conjuctiva when palpebral conjuctiva curls around the anterior suface of the eye?
Bulbar conjunctiva
What kind of tissue type is conjunctiva?
Stratified columnar epithelium underlain by areolar (vascularization).
List 4 rectus eye muscles and explain its action.
Lateral Rectus-lateral move
Medial R.- medial move
Superior R.-Up and medial
Inferior R.- Down and medial
List 2 oblique eye muscles and explain its action.
Inferior oblique-up and lateral
Superior oblique-down and lateral
What do you call the misalighnment of eyes caused by paralysis extrinsic eye muscle? Treatment?
Strabismus
Surgery/Botox to straigten the eye.
What do you call the most external layer of the eye?
Fibrous tunic layer
What do you call the posterior 5/6th of the fibrous tunic layer?
Sclera
What kind of tissue is sclera made of?
Collagen and elastic fibers
What do you call the anterior part of the fibrous tunic layer?
Cornia
What kind of tissue is the cornea?
Dense connective tissue with hundreds of sheet of collagen sandwitched by cornial epithelium and cornial endothelium.
State the function of cornea.
Let the light into the eye.
Forms part of the light bending apparatus.
What type of receptor is the visual receptor?
Photoreceptor
What is the receptor for the eye?
Neural layer in the retina.
What is the function of conjunctiva?
Its stratified columnar epithelium contains goblet cells which secrete a lubricating mucus that prevents the eye from drying.
What do you call the protective nerve function of cornea?
Blinking reflex
What do you call the middle coat of the eyeball?
Vascular layer
What is the three parts of the vascular layer?
Chroid, ciliary body, and the iris.
Which one is the highly vascular darkly pigmented part?
Chroid
What is the function of choroid?
Nourish the other layers of the eye.
What is the brown clolor of the choroid and its function?
Melanocytes.
Absorbs and prevent light from scattering in the eye.
What type of tissue is ciliary body?
Smooth muscle (ciliary muscle)
Name 3 parts of ciliary body.
Ciliary muscle, ciliary process (folds), ciliary zonule(fine fiblrils from the process to the lense)
What kind of tissue is iris made of?
Smooth muscle
State the two smooth muscle fibers and its function. What autonomic nervous system controlls it?
Sphincter- bright light and close vision, it contracts to constrict the pupil. (PSNS)
Dilator pupillae muscle- in dim light and for distant vision, it contracts to widen the pupil. (SNS)
What creats the eye color?
Brown
Hazel
Blue
Melanin in the iris.
Brown-melanin in both posterior & anterior
Hazel-Posterior & little anterior
Blue- Posterior only
What is two things contained in the inner layer?
Retina, optic nerve
What is two layers in the retina?
Pigmented layer
Neural layer
What is the function of pigmented layer?
Like choroid, melanocytes in it prevent light from scattering in the eye. Supports photoreceptive cells.
State the 3 types of neurons in the neural layer of the retina. (External to internal)
Photoreceptor cells
Bipolar cells
Ganglion cells
State two types of photoreceptors?
Rod cells
Cone cells
State the function of Rod cells.
More sensitive to light, but has no color or sharp image.
Permit vision in dim light.
State the function of cone cells.
Operate best in bringht light .
High acuity color vision.
State the structual difference between cone and rod cells.
Inner and outer segments are connected to the cell body by outer fiber for rod cells, but they join directly to the cell body for cone cells.
Explain location, characteristic and function of fovea centralis
Locted directly in the anterior posterior axis of the eye. Contains only Cones. Provides maximal visual acuity, when you look straight.
Explain location, another name, and function of blind spot.
located on a circular elevation where ganglion cell axons exit in the back. Optic disc. Lacks photo receptors, so light focused there cannot be seen.
What portion of eye contain vitreous humor?
Posterior segment of the eye.
What is the function of vitreous humor?
Transmit light
Support lense from the back.
Hold the neural layer against pigmented layer in the retina.
Maintain intraocular pressure.
Explain the course of aqueous humor.
Formed from capillaries in the ciliary process, enters the posterior chamber, flows to pupil, anterior chamber, and drains from scleral venous sinus in the limbus.
Function of aqueous humor.
Is it replaceable?
Supplies nutrients and oxygen to the avascular lens and cornea. It is made every day.
Vitreous humor is not irreplacable.
What happens, when aqueous humor does not drain like it supposed to?
It causes glaucoma.
What is the purpose of the lens?
Precise focusing of light on the retina through refraction
(bending of the lense).
What happens to the lense, when focusing on distant object? How do light rays come in?
Ciliary zonule's tension stretches the lens (this is the relaxed state) Lens is flat.
Light rays goes in parallel to one another.
What happens to lense, when you focus on near object? How do light rays
Muscle contract and no longer pulling the lense. Lens become rounder. Light diverges as they reach the eye requiring eyes to bend it.
What do you call the lens bending function of the eye?
Accomodation
State the purpose of iris.
Vary the size of the pupil with two muscles;sphincter and dilator pupillae muscles.
Define accomodation
adjustment, especially of the eye for seeing objects at various distances.
What do you call the adjustment of the eye for long distances by relaxation of the ciliary muscles?
Nagative accomodation
What do you call the adjustment of the eye for short distances by contraction of the ciliary muscles?
Positive accomodation
List all the structrues involved in the visual pathway.
Ganglion cells in the retina, optic nerve, optic chiasma,lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, optic radiation, primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe.
Where does optic nerves from each medial side decussate?
At optic chiasma.
What do you call the visual pathway past ducussation at the optic chiasma?
Optic tract
What is the functional difference between iris and ciliary body?
Iris- vary the size of pupil
(contsrictor and dilator muscle)
Ciliary body- changes the shape of the lens (flat-relaxed, round-constricted)
What do you call the condition of the normal eye when parallel rays are focused exactly on the retina and vision is perfect?
Emmetropia
What do you call the condition of the eye, when paralley light rays are not focused on the retina, but in front of it?
Myopia
What do you call the condition of the eyes, when parallel light rays are focused behind the retina?
Hyperopia
How do you correct myopia and hyperopia?
Myopia- concave lense
Hyperopia- convex lense
What do you call the condition of the eye caused by the loss of elasticity and accomodative power of the lens?
Presbyopia
Explain astigmatism.
Correction.
Unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens. Toric lens.
What type of receptors are in the ear?
Mechanoreceptors
Proprioceptors
What is the name of the receptor for hearing and where is it located?
Inner hair cell in the cochlear duct.
What is the name of the receptor for static equilibrium and linear acceleration of the head?
Maccula of saccule and uticle in vestibule.
What is the name of the receptor for dynamic(rotational) acceleration of the head?
Crista ampullaris in the semicircular canals.
What cranial nerve is involved in auditory and equlibrium pathway?
Vestibulocochlear nerve(VIII)
What cranial nerve is involved in visual pathway?
Optic nerve(II)
What structures are included in the external ear?
Auricle/Pinna
External acoustic meatus
tympanic membrane
What is the funcrion of the 1.auricle, the 2.external acoustic meatus and 3.tympanic membrane?
1. Gather and funnel sound waves coming into the external acoustic meatus. 2. Passage way for the sound. earwax draps dust and repels insects 3. Sound vibrates on it and vibration gets transferred to the middle ear.
What structures are included in the middle ear?
Oval window, round window, epitympanic recess, pharyngotympnic tube (eustachian tube), auditory ossicles
What are three smallest included as auditory ossicles?
Malleus, incus and stapes.
What is the function of pharyngotympanic tube?
It equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear with outside air pressure.
What is the function of auditory ossicles?
It transmit the vibrations of the eardrum across the cavity to a fluid in the inner ear.
Which hole does the stapes vibrate against?
Oval window
What is the two main divisions in the internal ear?
Bony labyrinth
Membranous labyrinth
What structures are in bony labyrinth?
Semicircular canals, vestibule and cochlea.
What structures are in membranous labyrinth?
Semicircular ducts
Utricle and saccule in vestibule
Cochlear duct
What kind of fluid is the membranous labyrinth filled with?
Endolymph
What kind of fluid is the bony labyrinth filled with?
Perilymph
What do you call the central pillar bone in the cochlear?
modiolus
Which scala in the cochlea is continuous with vestibule? Which window is in contact with it?
Scala vestibule
Oval window
Which scala in the cochlea ends at the round window?
Scala tympani
List structure included in the spiral organ/organ of Corti.
3 rows of outer hair cells, 1 row of inner hair cell, stereocilia, tectorial membrane
Which membrane produces endolymph of the inner ear?
vestibular membrane
Which membrane supports organ of Corti?
Basilar membrane.
What do you call the middle scala in the cochlea?
Scala media or cochlear duct
Macula is a receptor in vestible(static equilibrium&linear accecelarion). What is the jelly like disc that covers the stereocillia of macula hair cells?
Otolithic membrane
What do you call the crystals of calcium carbonate sitting on the membrane?
otoliths
What do you call the swelling in the semicircular duct?
Membranous ampulla
What do you call the semicircular canal receptor in the membranous ampulla?
Crista ampullaris
What exites the cells in semicircular duct?
Bending of hairs in the jelly like mass "cupula".
How is nausea caused?
It happens, when equilibrium through ear, muscle and vision have some discrepancy.
It may be also because vestibular nuclei is close to the medulla that control vomitting.
What is the structure of sensory epithelia in membranous labyrinth?
Simple squamous epithelium with columnar supporting cells.
What do you call the disorder caused by too much endolymph?
Meniere's syndrome
What do you call the deafness caused due to no sound getting to cochlear?
Conduction deafness
What do you call the deafness caused due to damage to cranial nerve or hair nerve?
Sensorineural deafness