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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Olfactory sensation
Smell
Receptors of sup. nasal cavity on either side of nasal septum
Olfactory cells
Olfactory hairs
Sustentacular cells
Olfactory (bowmans) gland
Basal cells
Special senses
Olfactory sensation
Gustatory sensation
Visual sensation
Olfactory cells
Bipolar
distal end forms "1" dendrite = the termination of the bipolar olfactory cell
Olfactory hairs
6-8 cilia that arise from the dendrite
site of olfactory transduction
Sustentacular (supporting) cells
For physical support, nourishment, electrical insulation
Olfactory (bowmans) gland
Produce mucus
Basal cells
Produce new olfactory receptors cells (live "1" month +) is unique because olfactory receptors are neurons - and mature neurons are not usually replaces!
Gustatory sensation
Sense of taste
Receptors occur on some types of papillae only
Circumvallate or vallate
Fungiform
Filiform
Gustatory cells
Gustatory hairs
Sustentacular (supporting) cells
Basal cells
Taste pore
Structure of taste bud
Gustatory cells
Gustatory hairs
Sustentacular (supporting) cells
Basal cells
Taste pore
Circumvallate or vallate
Large, circular, v-shape back of tongue
all have taste buds
Fungiform
Mushroom shaped
tip and sides of tongue
most have taste buds
Filiform
Pointed
anterior 2/3 of tongue
rarely have taster buds
Gustatory cells
4-20 per capsule
Gustatory hairs
"1" per cell
project through taste pore
Sustentacular (supporting) cells
Specialized epithelial cells
help form wall of capsule
Basal cells
Give rise to new gustatory cells and supporting cells
Taste pore
Pore at top of receptor
Visual sensation
Sense of vision
Accessory structures of visual sensation
Eyebrows
Eyelids (palpebrae)
Palpebral fissure
Lacrimal caruncle
Tarsal plate
Conjuctiva
Eyelashes
Palpebral fissure
(structure)
Medial canthus
Lateral canthus
Palpebral fissure
visual part of eye
Tarsal plate
(structure)
tarsal (meibomian) glands
Medial canthus
Also called medial "commissure"
Lateral canthus
Also called lateral "commissure"
Eyebrows
Eyelids
Keeps thing out of eyes
Lacrimal caruncle
Reddish elebation near medial commisssure
have oil (sebaceous) glands
Tarsal plate
Thick layer conn. tissue that supports lids
Tarsal (meibomian) glands
Modified sebacceous glds.
in grooves in tarsal plate
keep lids from sticking together
Conjuntiva
(structure)
Palpebral portion
Bulbar (ocular)portion
Eyelashes
(structure)
Sebacceous ciliary glands (glands of zeis)
Palpebral portion
lines inner surface of eyelids
Bulbar (ocular)portion
lines eyeball
is continuous with palpebral portion
Sebacceous ciliary glands (glands of zeis)
keep eyelashes moist
Lacrimal apparatus
Produce tears (lacrimal secretion) and drain them away
Lacrimal gland
Superior and lateral to each eye
Excretory lacrimal ducts
small ducts that carry tears from the lacrimal glands
Puncta lacrimalia
Also called "lacrimal points"
tears pass medially over the ant. surface of the eyeball to enter two small openings
Lacrimal canals
A duct
one on each eyelid, beginning at the puntum at the medial margin of an eyelid, conveying tears medially into the nasolacrimal sac
Lacrimal sac
either of the two dilated ends of the lacrimal ducts at the nasal ends of the eyes that fill with tears secreted by the lacrimal glands
Nasolacrimal duct
Carries secretion into nasal cavity just inf. to inf. nasal concha
Lacrimal secretion(tears)
Watery, clear, salts, some mucous
moistens and lubricates
Lysosome
A natural bacterial enzyme
Structure of eyeball
Fibrous tunic
Vascular tunic
Iris
Retina
Ant. cavity
Post. (vitreous) cavity
Lens
Lens fibers
Fibrous tunic
(structure)
Sclera
Cornea
scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm)
Vascular tunic
(structure)
Choroid coat
Ciliary body
Ciliary muscle
Ciliary processes
Iris
(structure)
Pupil
Retina
(structure)
Inner layer of nervous tissue (visual portion)
Outer pigmented layer (nonvisual portion)
Ends at ora serrata
Macula lutea
Central fovea
Optic disc
Fibrous tunic
outer coat
superficial coat of the eyeball, made up of the posterior sclera and the anterior cornea.
Sclera
White of eye
post. and lateral side of fibrous coat.
Cornea
Ant. part of sclera
non-vascular and transparent
Sclera venous sinus (canal of sclemm)
junction of the cornea and sclera is an opening called _____ ______ _______.
aqueous humor gets drained into this sinus.
Vascular tunic (uvea)
middle coat of eyeball
composed of the choroid, ciliary body, and the iris.
Choroid coat
Post. part
vascular
dark brown pigment absorbs light
lines sclera
penetrated by optic nerve
Ciliary body
for ora serrata to point near sclerocarneal junction
Ciliary muscle
Alters shape of lens to accommodate for near and far vision
Ciliary processes
Folds of ciliary body
helps secret aqeuous humor - has choroid
Iris
colored part of eye
circular and long. muscles alter diameter of pupil
Pupil
Hole in iris
allows for light penetration
where light passes through
Retina
Innermost layer of eyeball
lines post. three quarters of eyeball
beginning of visual pathway
Inner layer of nervous tissue (visual portion) of retina
consists of 3 zones of neurons
Photoreceptor neurons (cells)
Bipolar neurons
Ganglionic neurons
Photoreceptor neurons (cells)
rods and cones
Bipolar neurons
path of light - passes through ganglionic neurons
Ganglionic neurons
(retina)
first, then bipolar neurons, and then photorecptors
Rods
(retina)
Black and white vision
dim light
sharp movement
abs. macula-foves
esp. at periphery of eye
Cones
(retina)
Color vision
bright light
sharp vision acuity
esp. fovea centralis
"C" = center; color
ora serrata
(retina)
where the retina ends
the irr. margin of retina lying int. and slightly post. to the junction of choroid and ciliary body
Macula lutea
(retina)
plaque that lines the structure of the retina
Central fovea
A depression of the muscula lutea of the retina, containing cones only and lacking blood vessels
the area of highest visual acuity (sharpness of vision)
Optic disc (blind spot)
Origin of optic nerve
(blind spot)
Anterior cavity
Ant. to lens of eye
Ant. chamber
Behind cornea and in front of iris
Post. chamber
Behind iris and in front of suspensory ligaments (zonules) and lens
Choroid plexuses
Modified capillaries
in ciliary processes of ciliary body
produces aqueous humor that moves from post. chamber to ant. chamber
Aqeuous humor
fluid in eyeball
Similiar in composition to c.s.f.
Scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm)
Site where aqueous humor absorbs back into blood
Posterior cavity (vitreous chamber)
post. to lens of eye
Anterior cavity of eye
Scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm)
Aqeuous humor
Choroid plexuses
Post. chamber
Ant. chamber
Post. cavity (vitreous chamber)
Post. to lens of eye
Post. cavity (vitreous chamber)
(structure)
Vitreous body (gel or humor)
Vitreous body (gel or humor)
gel-like substance that fills the eyeball between the lens and the retina.
Lens
Held in place by suspensory ligaments
shape changes to focus image on retina
avascular
Lens
(structure)
Lens capsule
Lens epithelium
Lens capsule
Of clear conn. tissue
attaches to suspensory ligaments
Lens epithelium
Of simple cuboidal
Lens fibers
Of proteins called "crytallins" arranged in circular layers like onion
Afferent pathway to brain
Light source
Pigmented layer of retina
Rods and cones - photoreceptor cells or neurons
Bipolar neurons
Ganglionic neurons
Optic nerve
Crossing of fibers in optic chiasma
Optic tracts
Thalamus
Visual center in occipital lobes
External ear
auricle
ext. aud. canal
eardrum (tympanic membrane)
Auricle (pinna)
a flap of elastic cartilage shaled like the flared end of a trumpet and covered by skin.
External auditory canal
a curved tube about 2.5 cm long that lies in the temporal bone and leads from the auricle to the eardrum.
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
a thin semitransparent partition btwn. the ext. aud. canal and middle ear
covered by epidermis and lined by simple cuboidal.
Middle ear
(structure)
Auditory (estachian) tube
Auditory ossicles
Oval window
Round window
Secondary tympanic membrane
Muscles and ligaments of ear cavity
Internal (inner) ear or labyrinth
complicated series of canals
innermost part of the ear
Internal (inner) ear or labyrinth
(structure)
Bony labyrinth
Membranous labyrinth
Cochlea
a coil
The part of the internal ear that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, is conical, and is placed almost horizontally anterior to the vestibule.
Modiolus
center of cochlea
Vestibule
the oval central portion of the bony labyrinth.
Semicirular canals (bony)
Projecting sup. and post. from the vestibule
lie at right angles
named anterior, posterior, and lateral
Ampullae of semicircular canals
a swollen enlargement of each canal
Perilymph
sim. to cerebrospinal fluid
The fluid which surrounds the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear, and separates it from the walls of the chambers in which the labyrinth lies
Membranous labyrinth
inner portion
a series of sacs and tubes inside the bony labyrinth and having the same general form.
lined by epithelium
contains endolymph
Bony labyrinth
(structure)
Cochlea
Modiolus
Vestibule
Semicirular canals (bony)
Ampullae of semicircular canals
Perilymph
Auditory (estachian) tube
Runs from the middle ear cavity to pharynx
helps equalize air pressure
Auditory ossicles
3 smallest bones in body
Auditory ossicles
(structure)
Malleus (hammer)
Incus (anvil)
Stapes (stirup)
Malleus (hammer)
attaches to surface of inf. part of the eardrum
articulates with body of incus.
Incus (anvil)
Middle bone in series
articulates with the head of stapes
Stapes (stirup)
base of the footplate fits into the oval window
Oval window
fenestra vestibuli
has base plate of stapes
Round window
fenestra cochleae
has second tympanic membrane
directly below the oval window
Secondary tympanic membrane
In round window
Membranous labyrinth
(structure
Cochlear duct
Utricle and saccule
Semicircular ducts or membranous semicircular canals
Ampulae of semicircular ducts
Endolymph
Cochlear duct
3rd channel
Spiral tube in the bony canal of the cochlea, lying on its outer wall between the scala vestibuli and scala tympani.
Utricle and saccule
A little sac, or bag in membranous labyrinth of inner ear
Semicircular ducts or membranous semicircular canals
portion of the membranous labyrinth that lie inside the bony semicircular canals.
Ampullae of semicircular ducts
sac-like duct
A nearly spherical enlargement of one end of each of the three semicircular ducts, anterior, posterior, and lateral, where they connect with the utricle.
Endolymph
The watery fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear.