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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
respiratory system
includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and their smaller branches, and the lungs
alveoli
terminal air sacs located in the lungs. location for gas exchange with the blood
conducting passageways
allow air to reach the lungs. They purify, humidify, and warm incoming air
nose
the only externally visible part of the respiratory system. air enters the nose through external nares/ nostrils
nasal cavity
interior of the nose that is divided by a midline called the nasal septum
nasal septum
divides the nasal cavity in half
respiratory mucosa
rests on a rich network of thin-walled veins that warms the air as it flows past
conchae
three mucosa-covered projections/lobes that greatly increase the surface area of the mucosa exposed to the air. also increasesthe air turbulence inthe nasal cavity
palate
separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity. (hard palate; where palate is supported by bone. soft palate; unsupported posterior part)
sinusitis
sinus inflammation. occurs when the passageways connecting the sinuses to the nasal cavity are blocked with mucus or infectious matter
pharynx
muscular passageway about 13 cm long. Commonly called the throat. Serves as a common passageway for food and air. Continuous with the nasal cavity anteriorally via the internal nares
internal nares
connects the pharynx to the nasal cavity
nasopharynx
Superior portion where air first enters from the nasal cavity
oropharynx
air travels through here as well as the laryngopharynx after passing through the nasopharynx
laryngopharynx
air travels through here as well as the oropharynx after passing through the nasopharynx
auditory tubes
drain the middle ear. open into the nasopharynx therefore ear infections may follow a sore throat
tonsils
clusters of lymphatic tissue that are found in the pharynx
pharyngeal tonsil
called adenoid. located high in nasopharynx. If inflamed and swollen, it obstructs the nasopharynx and forces the person to breathe through the mouth. Air can't be warmed in nose so tonsilitis occurs
palatine tonsils
in the oropharynx at the end of the soft palate
lingual tonsils
at the base of the tongue
larynx
voice box. Routes air and food into the proper channels and plays a role in speech. Located below the pharynx. Formed by eight rigid hayaline cartilages and a spoon-shaped flap of elastic cartilage called the epiglottis
thyroid cartilage
the largest of the hyaline cartilages which protrudes anteriorly and is known as the Adam's apple
epiglottis
"Guardian of the airways" Protects the superior opening of the larynx. it forms a lid over the opening of the larynx when we consume food or fluids. it routes food into the esophagus posteriorly
cough reflex
occurs when anything other than air enters the larynx. Does NOT work when unconscious
vocal folds/true vocal cords
formed by part of the mucous membrane of the larynx. vibrate with expelled air. Allows us to speak
glottis
slitlike passageway between the vocal folds
trachea
windpipe. Respiratory tube extending from the larynx to bronchi. lined with ciliated mucosa
cilia
beat continuously and in a direction opposite to that of the incoming air. Propel mucusm loaded with dust particles and other debris away from the lungs to the throat where it can be swallowed or spit out. Inhibited by smoking.
primary bronchi
formed by the division of the trachea. Each plunges into the medial depressions of the lungs. rifght primary is wider, shorther, and straighter than left.
lungs
occupy the entire thoracic cavity except for the most central area
mediastinum
most central area of the thoracic cavity. houses the heart, great blood vessels, bronchi, esophagus etc.
apex
the narrow superior portion of each lung. located just deep to the clavical
base
the broad lung area resting on the diaphragm
pulmonary/visceral pleura
A visceral serosa that covers the surface of each lung
parietal pleura
lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
respiratory zone
includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. Only site of gas exchange
conducting zone structures
serve as conduits to and from the respiratory zone
respiratory membrane (air-blood barrier)
constructed by the alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes. Gas flowing past one side and blood flowing past on the other side
pulmonary ventilation
air must move into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs of the lungs are continuously changed and refreshed
external respiration
gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and alveoli must take place
respiratory gas transport
oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream
internal respiration
at systemic capillaries, gas exchanges must be made between the blood and tissue cells
inspiration
when air is flowing into the lungs
expiration
when air is leaving the lungs
diaphragm
inspiratory muscle. As it contracts, it moves inferiorly and flattens out
nonrespiratory air movements
a result of reflex activity but some produced voluntarily. Ex. cough, sneeze, crying, laughing, hiccups, yawn
(IRV) inspiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume
(ERV) Expiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration
residual volume
cannot be voluntarily expelled. Allows gas exchange to go on continuously even between breaths and helps to keep the alveoli open
vital capacity
total amount of exchangeable air that is typically around 4800 ml in healthy young males
dead space volume
air that enters the respiratory tract and remains in the conducting zone passageways and never reaches the alveoli
external respiration
actual exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood
internal respiration
the gas exchange process that occurs between the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells
bicarbonate ion
plays important role in the blood buffer system
hypoxia
inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues