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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the main function of the Respiratory System?
To bring oxygen into the body and carry carbon dioxide out of it.
What type of respiration occurs in the lungs, takes place between the air inhaled in the lungs and the blood flowing through the capillaries (pulmonary circulation)?
External respiration
What type of respiration occurs all over the body, exchange of air between the capillaries and the cells and tissues of the body?
Internal respiration
What are four of the main respiratory system functions?
Voice Production
Body Temperature Regulation
Acid-base balance
Olfactory sense
What two systems is the respiratory system divided into?
Upper Respiratory System
Lower Respiratory System
What is the upper respiratory system composed of?
Nose to tracheal bifurcation.
What is the lower respiratory system composed of?
Bronchi to alveoli.
What is the area separated by Nasal Septum, filled with mucous membrane lined turbinates?
Nasal Passages
The nasal passage is divided into 3?
meatuses (passageways)
What is the area of air-filled pockets within the maxillary and frontal bones?
Paranasal Sinuses
What is the common passageway for respiratory and digestive systems?
What is the ventral caudal respiratory pathway?
What is the dorsal caudal digestive pathway?
What is the function of the Larynx?
Voice production.
Prevents foreign material from being inhaled.
Controls airflow.
What are the four components of the Larynx?
Arytenoid Cartilages
Thyroid Cartilage
Cricoid Cartilage
What is the triangular shaped cartilage structure that closes over the glottis (opening into the trachea) during swallowing.
What open and close to create noise (phonation)?
Arytenoid cartilages / Vocal cords!
What is the condition caused by inflammation of the lungs produced by inhalation of foreign material?
Aspiration Pneumonia
What is the C-shaped cartilage rings with smooth muscle connecting the ends of the "C" dorsally called?
What occurs in the lower respiratory tract?
Gas exchange with the pulmonary circulation system at the alveolus.
What are the five parts of the lower respiratory tract?
Bronchial tree
Alveolar Ducts
What is the part of the lower respiratory system responsible for bronchoconstriction or dilation?
Where does the air exchange system arranged in sacs take place?
Alveolus (Alveoli-plueral)
What is the disease causing the bronchial tree to become overly sensitive to certain irritants, more common in humans but also seen in cats?

Dyspnea and Cyanosis are signs.
What is the problem called in toy and miniature dogs and mini horses, defect in the spacing of the tracheal rings, breathing difficulty during excitement or exercise?
Tracheal Collapse
The lungs are divided into?

left lung 2 lobes
right lung 4 lobes.
What is the medial aspect of each lung where bronchi, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves enter and leave called? (Fastened in place)
What happens during prolonged recumbency, collapsed lobes due to pneumothorax or prenatal lungs are wet and solid?
Fluid accumulation - dependent lobes.
What type of lungs have a solid consistency (like liver) and will not float in H2O because no air in alveoli.
Fetal lungs

Alveoli do not expand until the first breath. After first breath, Surfactant will prevent expanded alveoli from closing again.
What type of lungs are light, spongy consistency and will float in H2O?
Newborn lungs.
Where does oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse back and forth across this thin layer?
What is the stuff called which reduces surface tension and keeps alveoli from collapsing?
What does URI stand for?
Upper Respiratory Infection
An upper respiratory infection is normally caused by sinusitis, "Colds" and is generally?
Generally, not life threatening because of drainage of excess mucous / fluid possible.
What infection normally affects the lower respiratory tract?
Bronchitis or Pneumonia
Bronchitis or Pneumonia a lower respiratory tract infection is normally?
More life threatening as fluids accumulate in dead end air passages and impead gas exchange.
What is the area portion of the thorax in between the lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels?
What is the partial vacuum that exists within the thorax called?
Negative Intra-thoracic Pressure

Allows the lungs to expand!
What is the term related to inhalation, occurs when the diaphragm and inter costal (rib) muscles change position to increase the size of the thoracic cavity?
What is the term related to exhalation, decreases the size of the thoracic cavity?
What are the inspiratory muscles?
External Intercostal Muscles
What are the expiratory muscles?
Internal Intercostal Muscles
Abdominal Muscles
Which is more passive? Inspiration or Expiration?
Expiration is more passive.

But require more work during air-trapping diseases or heavy exercise.
How is GAS exchange possible?
It is due to diffusion!

Molecules flow from high concentration to low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
What area of the brain controlls breathing?
The Medulla Oblongata
What are the two main types of respiratory controls?
Mechanical and Chemical!
The Chemical Respiratory Control monitors what?
Blood pH and CO2 levels!
What is it called when increased CO2 lowers pH below basal level?
Respiratory acidosis!

When detected increases respiratory rate!
What is it called when decreased CO2 increases pH above basal level?
Respiratory alkalosis!

When detected decreases respiratory rate!
What are a few things that can cause metabolic alkalosis or acidosis?
Lactic acidosis from anaerobic metabolism.

Vomiting with loss of HCI from stomach.
What is a collapsed lungs called?
What is air in pleural space called?
What is no breathing called?
What is the amount of air inspired and expired in one breath called?
Tidal Volume
What is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration?
Residual Volume
What is the movement of air between the atmosphere and the lungs called?
What is the movement of blood between the vessels and a tissue bed called?
What is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood called?
External Respiration
What is the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells called?
Internal Respiration
What is a protective relfex stimulated by irritation or foreign matter in the trachea or bronchi?