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30 Cards in this Set

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Nervous System
A control system in animals that controls muscle movement, monitors organs, constructs and stops input from senses, and generates actions
Nerve Net
Arrangement of interconnected neurons lacking a brain; simple nervous system found in phyla cnidaria
Central Nervous System
The section of a nervous system that contains a brain and longitudinal nerve chords
Peripheral Nervous System
The section of the nervous system that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Neuron
A class of cells in the nervous system; have excitable membranes that allow them to generate electrical signals
Sensory Neuron
A neuron that transmits information from sensors that detect external stimuli
Interneuron
A neuron that communicates only with other neurons; interprets signals from other neurons and distributes them accordingly
Motor Neuron
A neuron that communicates with effector cells
Effector Cell
Muscle or endocrine cells that generate output as a result of signals sent from the nervous system
Ganglia
Clusters of neurons in a peripheral nervous system
Soma/Perikaryon
The cell body; a bulbous end of a neuron that contains the cell nucleus
Dendrites
Branched extensions of a neuron that receive signals from other neurons
Axon
A nerve fiber; slender projection from a neuron that conducts electrical impulses away from the soma
Nerve
An enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons
Axon Hillock
A conical region where an axon joins with a soma
Myelin Sheath
An electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds an axon
Synaptic Terminal
The tip of a branched end of an axon
Synapse
The site of communication between a synaptic terminal and another cell
Presynaptic Cell
The neuron that transimits information
Postsynaptic Cell
The neuron that receives invormation
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers sent along an axon
Glia
Non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition for neurons
Astrocytes
Glia in the central nervous system; provide structural support for neurons and regulate extracellular concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters
Blood-Brain Barrier
Barrier formed by astrocytes during development via tight-junction inductions between cells lining capillaries and brain in spinal chord; restricts pasage of most substances in CNS, allows for tight control of extracellular fluid composition
Radial Glia
Glia that form tracks for newly formed neurons to travel on when migrating from the neural tube
Oligodendrocytes
Glia that form myelin sheaths around axons in the central nervous system
Schwann Cells
Glia that form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system
Why is there unidirectional flow across a chemical synapse?
Anatomy of the nervous system only allows signals to move in one direction; synaptic terminals are only on one end of an axon, thus even if a signal is stimulated in the middle of an axon and extends both ways, it will not continue in the reverse direction as the presynaptic cell has no way of interpreting the signal
Membrane Potential
The electrical potential difference across a plasma membrane
Resting Potential
The membrane potential of a neuron that is not transmitting signals; dependent upon ionic gradients that exist across the plasma membrane