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68 Cards in this Set

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functions of the nervous system (3)
-sensory
-integrative
-motor
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
where decisions are made
Peripheral nervous system
12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Somatic and Autonomic NSs
somatic nervous system
controls muscles
still peripheral NS
autonomic nervous system
controls organs and glands
still peripheral NS
sympathetic nervouc system
FIGHT OR FLIGHT
autonomic NS
Parasympathetic nervous system
REST AND DIGEST
autonomic NS
types of cells in the NS (3)
-neuroglia (six kinds)
-schwann cells (protect neurons)
-neurons (in PNS and mylenated (white) or unmylenated (grey))
myelin
fatty substance that insulates the nerve fiber and speeds up reactions
neuron
nerve cell for sensing, thinking, controlling muscles, regulating grandular secretions
parts of a neuron (4)
-dendrite
-axon, axon terminal, synaptic endbulb
-cell body
-nissl bodies, nucleus, nucleolus
dendrite
recieving or input portion tree shaped
axon, axon terminal, synaptic bulb
send the nerve impulse to another neuron
nissl bodies
site of protein synthesis in the neuron
nucleolus
making decisions about the cell part of the neuron
nerve
bundle of cells in the Peripherial NS
tract
bundle of cells in the central NS
ganglia
cluster of nerve cell bodies in Peripheral NS
nucleus
cluster of nerve cell bodies in central NS
types of neurons (3)
-sensory
-motor
-association

resting membrane potential
energy is stored
-- charge in cell, same amount of + charge outside cell
ion channel
opening in cell membrane for specific ions to come in
action potential
nerve impulse
phases of nerve transmission (5)
-resting membrane potential
-depolarization - +ions push into cell
-action potention
-repolarization - + ions push out of cell
-resting membrane potential again
the all or nothing principal
a single muscle fiber or neuron generates nerve impulse and the rest follow along like dominios!
saltatory conduction
impulses travel faster with less ATP
continuous conduction
impulse travels slower and occur in unmyelinated axons
A fibers
B fibers
C fibers
-largest in diameter, all myelinated, saltatory conduction, acute pain
-medium diameter, all myelinated but slower saltatory conduction
transmit impulse from organ to brain and spinal cord
-smallest, unmyelinated, continuous conduction
chronic pain
medulla oblongota
part of brainstem, contains all sensory and motor white matter tracts that connect the spinal cord with the brain
pons
contains nuclei of four pairs of cranial nerves that control facial expressions
midbrain
connects pons with diancephalon
cerebellum
second largest portion of the brain, recieves sensory input from prprioceptors in muscles, tendons, joints, and receptors for visual input and equillibrium
diencephalon parts (4)
-thalamus-relay station for sensory impulses
-hypothalamus-controls body activity thru pituitary
-epithalamus-holds pineal gland
-pineal gland-circadian
cerebrum
largest part of brain,higher thought processing, governs emotional aspects of behavior, pleasure, pain, anger, rage, and helps control muscle movemenbt
spinal cord
has continuous communication with brain, processes reflexes, integrates the PNS and CNS
meninges (4)
covering of the spinal cord
-dura mater
-arachnoid
-subarachnoid
-pia mater
dura mater
outer layer of spinal cord covering, tough mother
arachnoid
middle layer of spinal cord covering, A-vascular (doesn't bleed)
subarachnoid
this space contains cerebrospinal fluid which is filtered blood plasma
pia mater
inner layer, soft mother, what adheres to the brain and spinal cord like skin
dorsal rami spinal nerves
supplies the muscles, skin, and bones of posterior part of head, neck, and trunk
ventral rami spinal nerves
supplies the anterior muscles of the head, neck, trunk, and the limbs
plexuses
a network of nerves, veins, and lymphatic vessels
phrenic nerve
controls the diaphragm (c3-c5)
musculocutaneous nerve
supplies flexors of arm and forearm (C5-C7)
axillary nerve
supplies deltoid and teres minor (C5-C6)
radial nerve
supplies posterior aspect of arm and forearm (C5-T1)
median nerve
supplies anterior forearm and palm (C5-T1)
carpal tunnel nerve!
ulnar nerve
supplies flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi digitorum profundus
femoral nerve
supplies psoas, iliacus, and quads, lumbar nerve (L1-L4)
obturator nerve
supplies adductor muscles, lumbar nerve (L1-L4)
sciatic nerve
supplies hamstrings, anterior and posterior compartments of legs, sacral nerve (L4-S3)
intercostal nerves
do not form a plexus but they do supply the ribs and muscles of the thoracic area
cranial nerves (3)
-V trigeminal
-VII Facial
-X vagus
stretch reflex
stretching stimulates a RECEPTOR, SENSORY NEURON is excited, with in the INTEGRATING CENTER a decision is being made, MOTOR NEURON is excited, EFFECTOR (same muscle) contracts to releave the stretching!
tendon reflex
Increased tension stimulates RECEPTOR, SENSORY NEURON is excited, with in the INTEGRATING CENTER there is an activation of inhibitory assocaiation neurons, MOTOR NEURON is inhibited, EFFECTOR (muscle) relaxes to relieve excess tension
inhibitory association
excititory neurons in spinal cord activate motor neurons to make antagonist muscle contract
(stretch hamstring, relaxes quad)
receptors (3)
-mechanoreceptors-detect work
-thermoreceptors- temp change
-photorecpetors-light on retina
receptors (3)
-chemorecptors-chemicals
-nocioreceptors- pain
-propriorecptors- muscle length
PNF
Proprioreceptive neuromuscular facilitation
In nervous system
sensory job
integrative job
motor job
-senses inside and outside the body
-analyzes, stores, and makes decisions
-responds by initiating muscle contraction or grandular secretions
sensory neuron function
Afferent--tranasmit from receptor in body to Central NS
motor neuron function
Efferent--transmit away from central NS to body part
association neuron function
Integrative--in central NS and makes decisions
nerve impulse
ion channels open to give enough ATP to open the next channe
V trigeminal cranial nerve
controls muscles of face and chewing (mastication)
VII Facial cranial nerve
controls facial expressions
X vagus cranial nerve
controls muscles of larynx and pharynx