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112 Cards in this Set

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Blank is the master controlling and communicating system of the body.
Nervous System
The part of the nervous system outside the CNS and consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The sensory division that conveys impluses to the CNS
Afferent division
The motor division carries impulses from the CNS to the effector organs, muscles and glands.
Efferent division
Allow us to conciously, or voluntarily, control the skeletal muscles. Often refered to as the voluntary nervous system.
Somatic nervous system
Regulates events that are involuntary such as the activity of smooth and cardiac muscle and glands. Also Refered to as the involuntary nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
Cells that generally support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons.
Neuroglia
Abundant star-shaped cells that account for nearly half the neural tissue. Their numerous projections have swollen ends that cling to the neurons, bracing them and ancoring them to the nutrient supply lines, the blood capillaries.
Astrocytes
These glia cells protect the neurons from harmful substances that might be in the blood. They also help control the chemical environment in the brain by picking up excess ions and recapturing released neurotransmitters.
Astrocytes
These glial cells are spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris including dead brain cells.
Microglia
Thes glial cells line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. The beating of their cilia helps to circulate the cerebro spinal fluid that fills those cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS.
Ependymal Cells
Glial cells that wrap their flat extenions tightly around the nerve fibers, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths.
Oligodendrocytes
The supporting cells form the myelin sheaths by wrapping themselves around the nerve
Shwann Cells
These supporting cells provide cushioing around the cell body (Soma)
Satelite Cells
True or False, glia are not able to transmit nerve impulses and never lose their ability to divide.
True
Highly specilized cells that are able to transit nerve impulses from one part of the body to the other.
Neurons
The metabolic center of the neuron
Cell Body (Soma)
The intermediate filaments that are important in maintaining the cell shape.
Nissl and Nuerofibrils
The power house of the Cell Body responsible for supplying ATP
Mitochondria
Neuron processes that convey incoming signals to the cell body.
Dendrites
Neuron processes that convey signals away from the cells body.
Axons
The cone like region that attaches the axon to the cell body
Axon hillock
The axon branches off into terminal ends called
Axon terminals
A occasional branch that comes off of the Axon
Axon Collaterals
The axon terminals contain these chemicals
Neurotransmitters
Each axon terminal is seperated from the next nueron by a small gap called
Synaptic Cleft
Each nueron is attched to another by a ______
Synapse
A fatty material that surrounds the nerve fibers that insulate and increase the transmission rate of the nerve impulses
Myelin Sheath
The gaps between the myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
True or False Oligodendrocytes creat Myleine sheaths around the CNS and can wrapp multiple fibers at once
True
The desease that occurs when the myelin sheaths around the fibers are gradually destroyed, converted to hardened sheaths called sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis
Cell bodies found in the CNS in clusters are called
Nuclei
Small collections of cell bodies are called
Ganglia
Bundles of nerve fibers running through the CNS are called
Tracts
Bundles of nerve fibers running through the PNS are called
Nerves
True or false: The terms white matter and grey matter respectively refer to myelenated versus unmyelenated regions of the CNS
True
Dense collections of myelinated nerve fibers
White Matter
Dense collections of unmyelinated nerve fibers
Grey Matter
These receptors detect stretch or tension in the skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints.
Propioceptors
They connect the motor and (efferent) and sensory (afferent) neurons in a neutral pathways
Association nuerons (or interneurons)
The major ions located inside the cells are
Positively charge Potassium Ions
The major ions located outside the cells are
Positively charged Sodium ions and negatively charge chloride
Negatively charged ion
anion
Positievly charged ione
cation
When the plasma membrane is sitting at rest, or inactive the neuron is
Polarized
An inward rush of Sodium ions into the nerve
Depolarization
If enough sodium ions are rushed into the cell body (from the dendrites) an action potential occurs called
Nerve impulse
Diffussion of potassium ions out of the nerve is
Repolariztion
Gap between the transmitting neuron and the recieveing neuron
Synaptic Cleft
The sack that carries the neurotransmitter
Vesicles
Reflexes occur over neural pathways in the CNS and PNS called
Reflex arcs
Reflexes that stimulate the skeletal muscles are
Somatic Reflex
Reflexes that stimulate the smooth muscle, heart and glands are
Autonomic Reflex
These paired cerebral hemispheres collectively called ______, are the most superior part of the brain.
Cerebrum
The entire surface of the cerebral hemisphere exhibit elevated ridges of tissue called
gyri
The gyri is seperated by grooves called
sulcus
Deep sulcus grooves are called
fissures
Fissures seperate the cerebral hemsisphere called
lobes
Speech, memory, logical, and emotional response, voluntary movement are all part if this part of the brain
cerebral cortex
The somatic sensory area is located in the
paritiel lobe
This lobe alowws you to feel pain, coldness and light touch
paritiel lobe
The visual area of the brain is located in the
occipital lobe
The auditory part of the brain is located in the
temporal lobe
The primary motor area is located in the ________
frontal lobe
The motor axon of the motor nuerons form a major voluntary tract called the ______
corticospinal (or pyramidal tract)
The area of the brain that deals with speech
Brocas area
Located between the temporal, parietal and occipoital lobes
Speech area
The large fiber tract allows cerebral hemispheres to communincate with each other
Corpus Callosum
grey matter buried deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere
basil nuclei
The part of the brain that makes up the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalumus.
Diencephalon (or inter brain)
A relay station which encloses the third ventricle that passes sensory impulses to the sensory cortex.
thalamus
This part if the brain is responsible for regulating bado temperature, metabolism, and water balance. It also is the center for the emotional drive (Limbic system).
Hypothalamus
THe part of the brain that regulates the pituitary gland
Hypothalamus
This is located at the bottom of the thalamus abd is responsible for the olfactory sense (smell)
Mammillary bodies
This forms the roof of the third ventricle and has the imprtant parts of Pineal Body, and choriod plexus.
Epithalamus
Is about the size of a thumb and contains the structures of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
Brain Stem
This part of the brain extends from the mammillary bodies to the pons (inferiorly).
Midbrain
A tiny canal that travels through the midbrain and connects the third ventrical to the fouth ventricle (below)
Cerebral aqueduct
Located in the midbrain and is responisible for ascending and descending nerve pulses
Cerebral peduncles
Located in the midbrain and are relfex centers for vision and hearing.
Cerebral quadrigemina
Located in the inferior part of the brain stem. It merges into the spinal cord and contains centers that control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing swallowing, and vomiting.
Medulla Obligonta
A round structure that is located just below the midbrain and is made mostly of fiber tracts.
Pons
Extends the entire length of the brain stem and is involved with motor control and organs.
Reticular Formation
Plays a role wake and sleep. Damage to this is the result of a coma.
Reticular activating system
Provides precise timing for the skeletalk muscle activity and controls our equilibrium.
Cerebellum
The three connective tissue membranse covering and protecting the CNS structures.
Meninges
The two layered outer most layer of the meninges. ALso means tough mother
Dura Mater
The outermost part of the durmater and is connected to the skull
Periosteal layer
The inner most part of the dura mater and forms the outermost covering of the brain.
Meningeal layer
The middle meningeal layer. Looks like a spider layer.
Arachnoid Mater
The subarachnoid is connected to this mater. Also mean gentle mother.
Pia Mater
The water fluid forms a water fluid around the barin
Coronary Sinus Fluid
The part of the mininges that absorbs the CSF
Arachniod villus
Occurs when the brain is slightly injured. The victim becomes dizzy and my lose conciousness (temporarily)
Concussion
An injury that results in a coma for hours to a lifetime.
Contusion
After a severe head blow the patient may die of this swelling of the brain
Cerbral Edema
Commonly called a stroke
Cerebrovascular accident.
A cylindrical body that is about 17inches in length. Provides a two way pathway to the brain.
Spinal Cord
The collection of spinal nerves located inferior end of the vertebral canal. Look like a horses tail
Cuada Equina
The cell bodies of the sensory nuerons whose fibers enter the cord by the ____. If the ____ is damaged the patient will lose sensation from the body area.
Dorsal root
The grey matter of the spinal cord sends motor nerve impulses out the axons in the _______
Ventral Root
A bundle of neuron fibers found outside of the CNS.
Nerve
(Nerve Structure) Sorrounds the neuron fiber.
Endoneurium
(Nerve Structure) Sorrounds a group of nerve fibers
Perineurium
(Nerve Structure) A bundle of nueron fiber (includeing Endoneurium and Perineurium).
Fascicles
(Nerve Structure) Outer layer if the nerve
Epineurium
(Spinal Nerve) Located at the top of the spinal chord
Cervical Nerves
(Spinal Nerve) Located below the Cervical Nerve
Thoracic Nerves
(Spinal Nerve) Located directly below the thoracic nerve
Lumbar Nerves
(Spinal Nerve) Located directly under the Lumbar Nerve Inferior most of the spinal chord
Sacral
One of the two parts of the Autonimic Nervous system that calms down the body (unwind)
parasympathetic
One of the two parts of the Autonimic Nervous system that excites the body (fight or flight)
Sympathetic Division (thoracic columber)