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72 Cards in this Set

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Lymph
Fluid inside lymphatic vessels
derived from tissue fluid
Lymphatic vessels (lymphatics)
Gen. term referring to "all" lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic tissue (lymphoid)
Esp. of reticular conn. tissue and lymphocytes
Stroma
anatomical framework of lymphatic tissue
Reticular Fibers
Reticular cells
Macrophages
Reticular fibers
scattered
spread out
Part of the stroma of Lymphatic tissue
Macrophages
destroys some foreign substances by phagocytosis
Diffuse lymphatic tissue
not enclosed by a capsule
In lamina propria of mucous membranes
In most organs of body
Lymphatic Nodules
egg-shaped masses not enclosed by a capsule
Masses of lymphatic tissue
Outer cortex of lymphocytes
Some solitary; in mucous membranes
Some in masses or aggregates
Lymphatic Nodules
EXAMPLE
Tonsils
Peyer's patches in ileum
Appendix
Red Bone Marrow
meshes of the reticular network that contain the developmental stages of red blood cells, white blood cells, and megakaryocytes.
RBC and WBC are produced in spongy bone in long bones.
Lymphatic organs (major ones)
Lymph nodes
Tonsils
Spleen
Thymus
Lymphatic System (FUNCTIONS)
Returns tissue (interstitial or intercellular) fluid back to blood. Proteins esp. important.
Transports fats from G.I. tract to blood
Lymphocytes protect against bacteria, foreign substances through:
Lymphocyte T cells
Lymphocyte B cells
Lymphocyte T cells
Destroy invaders directly or indirectly by producing substances
Lymphocyte B cells
Differentiate into "plasma cells" - these produce antibodies (fights antigens)
Lymphatic vessels
A large vessels that collects lymph from lymphatic capillaries and converge with other lymphatic vessels to form the thoracic and right lymphatic ducts.
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymph capillaries
Lymphatic trunks
Lymphatic ducts
Lymph capillaries
Blind tubules
isolated or in plexuses
larger and more B permeable vs. capillaries
Anchoring filaments
Attach to epithelial cells
extend into surrounding tissue spaces
edema pulls on filaments thus opening spaces btwn. cells
Lymphatic vessels
From lymph capillaries
inner walls vs. veins but more valves esp. associated with visceral organs
Lymphatic trunks
R and L lumbar
Intestinal (single)
R and L bronchomediastinal
R and L subclavian
R and L jugular
Lymphatic ducts
Either of the two terminal lymph vessels that convey lymph to the bloodstream: right and left.
Lymphatic ducts
Thoracic duct (L. lymphatic)
R. lymphatic duct
Thoracic duct (L. lymphatic)
Ap. 18"
drain lft. side of body and all body above the ribs
Cisterna chili
Junction of L. int. jugular and L subclavian vein
Cisterna chili
Dilation oof and bigining of thoracic duct
origin of thoracic duct
Lymph nodes
Ap. 1" oval
bean shaped
about 600
R. lymphatic duct
Ap. 1/2" long
drain upper rt. side of body
Junction of the R. int. jugular and R subclavian vein
Hilus (hilium)
Indentation
for lymphatic vessels (efferent), blood vessels, nerves, etc.
Capsule
Dense irr. conn. tissue
Trabeculae
Trabeculae
capsular extensions divide node into campartments
provides supporet and provides a route ffor vlood vessels into the interior of a node
Stroma of lymph node
Capsule
Trabeculae
Reticular fibers and cells
Parenchyma
A lymph node is divided into a superficial layer (cortex) and deep layer (medulla).
Cortex
outer portion of the node
Lymphatic nodules
Germinal Centers
Medulla
inner portion
Medullary cords
Lymphatic nodules
Densely packed lymphatic masses
darker stain
Germinal Centers
Lightly stained
center of nodules
produce lymphocytes
Medullary cords
Strands of lymphocytes
fixed macrophages and lymphocytes
Afferent lymphatic vessels
Bring lymph toward node only
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Located at hilus
conduct lymph away from node only
Lymph node Function
Filters lymph and removes foreign substances
Produces lymphocytes (w.b.c's)
Cervical
neck
Axillary
armpit
Inguinal
groin area
Summary of Lymph flow
Plasma (from blood) - interstitial spaces (now called tissue fluid) - to lymph capillaries (now called lymph) - to lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels - to cortical sinuses of node - medullary sinuses of node - lymph exits node via efferent lymphatic vessels at hilus - lymphatic trunks - lymphatic ducts (2)(R and L lymphatic thoracic ducts) - back to blood at junction of R and L internal jugular and subclavian veins.
Valved lymphatic vessels
ensure the one way movement of lymph.
Respiratory movement
lymph moves from high pressure regions in body to low pressure regions in thoracic cavity.
Tonsils
Aggregated lymph nodules
Encircle oral cavity and pharynx
Manufacture lymphocytes and antibodies
Tonsils
(examples)
Pharyngeal (adenoids)
Palatine
Lingual
Spleen
largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in body (12cm)
left hypochondriac region of body
btwn stomach and diaphram
Gen. Shape of spleen
neighboring organs make indentations in visceral surface of spleen.
Stroma of spleen
Capsule
Trabeculae
Reticular fibers and cells
Parenchyma
White pulp
Red pulp
White pulp
blood passing through white pulp worked on by B and T cells and macrophages
consists of:
Central arteries
Splenic nodules (malphighian corpuscles)
Central arteries
Are the numerous branches of the splenic artery
Splenic nodules (malphighian corpuscles)
Surround central arteries
esp. of lymphocytes and macrophages
Red pulp
Blood passing through here cleansed of worn-out blood cells and platelets
stores platelets
produces blood cells (hemapoeisis) during fetal life
Consists of:
Venous sinuses
Splenic cords
Venous sinuses
blood sinuses
blood moves very slowly
Splenic cords
consists of r.b.c.'s, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and granulocytes
Hilus
a depression or fissure where vessels or ducts enter a bodily organ
Hilus
Splenic artery and vein
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Function of spleen
Doesn't filter lymph
Produces B cells - develop into plasma cells - produce antibodies
Phagocytize bacteria, old R.B.C.'s and thrombocytes
Store and release blood
Produce R.B.C.'s in fetus
Accessory spleens
can grow more if needed
Thymus
a bilobed organ located in the mediastinium btwn. sternum and aorta.
Thymus
(structure)
Usually bilateral (thymic lobes)
Capsule
Trabeculae
Lobules
Cortex
Lymphocytes
Medulla
Reticular epithelial cells
Thymic corpuscles
Thymus
(function)
Immunity
Immunity
Reticular epithelial cells produce hormones that help synthesize and distribute T cells to other lymphatic organs - it is therefore also considered to be an endocrine organ
Trabeculae
extension of capsule penetrate inward and divide lobes into lobules
Lobules
divided into inner and outer portion
A section or subdivision of a lobe.
Cortex
outer portion of lobule
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes of cortex of lobules
tightly packed
also present are reticular epithelial cells and macrophages
Medulla
inner
Reticular epithelial cells
Some lymphocytes
Thymic corpuscles
Reticular epithelial cells
Produce thymic hormones
Thymic Corpuscles
Concentric layers of flattened ret. epi. cells
filled with keratin granules and keratin