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21 Cards in this Set

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A substance that reacts to other substances(antigens) invading the body.
A substance invading the body that simulates the production of antibodies.
A laboratory method that uses electronic current to separate proteins, allowing genotypes to be determined.
HLA System
A diverse genetic system consisting of linked loci on chromosome 6 that control autoimmune response.
(Human Leukocyte Antigen)
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
A genetic trait defined in terms of the length of DNA fragments produced when certain enzymes cut the DNA sequence.(H)
-These certian enzymes are also called Resriction Enzymes.
A combination of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited as a single unit.
Like Linkage
Microsatellite DNA
Repeated short sequences of DNA (2-5 bases); the number of repeats is a high variable.
The DNA sequence CACACACACA contains 5 repeats.
Alu Insertion
A sequence of DNA repeated at different locations on different chromosomes.
Single-nucleotide Polymorphism
Specific positions in a DNA sequence that differ at ONE base.

Sequence 1: GAACCTTTA
Sequence 2: GAATCTTTA
Mitochondrial DNA
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells.
Only inherited through the mother.
Measurements of the human body, skull, and face.
Measurements of the size of teeth.
Measurements of finger and palm prints, including type classification and ridge counts.
As applied to humans, this is a vague term that has multiple meanings, both cultural and biological, refering to group membership.
EX. "White"
Biological Race
A group of populations sharing certian biological traits that makes them distinct from other groups of populations.
"Subspecies" or "Taxonomic Race"
Genetic Distance
An average measure of relatedness (or genetic similarity) between populations, based on a number of traits. Also used for understanding effects of genetic drift and gene flow, which should affect all loci to the same extent.
Genetic Distance Map
A picture that shows genetic relationships between populations.
Simply a two-dimensional plot showing the genetic relationship between the populations.
Isolation by Distance Model
A model that predicts that the genetic distance between populations increases as the geographic distance between them increases.
Female Chromosomes
Male Chromosomes
Luigi Cavalli-Sforza (1994)
Geneticist who conducted the most comprehensive study of genetic distance, by computing the genetic distance between 42 human populations worldwide using data on 120 allele frequencies (mostly red blood cell polymorphisms and HLA markers). He made a genetic distance map that showed a strong relationship to the geogrphic distances between populations.