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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Mendelian Genetics (H)
The branch of genetics concerned with patterns and processes of inheritance. (H)
(AKA) Human Genetics
Microevolution (H)
Short-term evolutionary change. (H)
-From one generation to the next.
Macroevolution (H)
Long-term evolutionary change. (H)
-Over thousands and millions of years.
The Molecule that provides the genetic code for biological structures and the means to translate this code
Base (H)
Chemical units that make up part of the DNA molecule and specifically genetic instructions. (H)
The molecule that functions to carry out the instructions for protein synthesis specified by the DNA molecule.
Messenger RNA
The form of RNA that transports the genetic instructions from the DNA molecule to the site of protein synthesis
Transfer RNA
A free floating molecule that is attracted to a strand of Messenger RNA, resulting in the synthesis of a protein chain.
A long strand of DNA sequences.
A DNA sequence that codes for a functional polypeptide (a compound containing many amino acids)or RNA product(simply a section of DNA that has an identifiable function).
Hemoglobin (H)
The molecule in blood cells that transports Oxygen. (H)
Exon (H)
A section of DNA that DOES code for the amino acids that make up proteins. (H)
-The opposite of an Intron
Intron (H)
A section of DNA that does NOT code for the amino acids that make up proteins. (H)
-The Opposite of an Exon
Regulatory Gene (H)
Gene that codes for the regulation of biological processes such as growth and developement. (H)
-turn other genes ON or OFF at the appropriate times.

Ex. Puberty
Homeobox Genes
A group of regulatory genes that encode a sequence of 60 amino acids regulating Embrionic Development
Mitosis (H)
The process of replication of chromosomes in body cells. (H)
-First, Chromosomes duplicate themselves
-Then, the cell divides or splits

-When finished there are two Cells with full sets of chromosomes
Meiosis (H)
The creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division.
-First, chromosomes duplicate themselves
-Then, the cell divides
-And divides again without duplicating
Genome (H)
The total DNA sequence of an organism. (H)
-Approximately 3 billion base pairs in length.
Locus (plural Loci)
The specific position of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome.
Allele (H)
The alternative form of a gene or DNA sequence that occurs at a given locus. They appear in pairs, one on each chromosome. (H)
ABO blood type system where there are three of these.
A, B, and O
Mendel's Law of Segrigation
Sex cells contain one of each pair of alleles. One from the father and one from the mother.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
The segrigation of any pair of chromosomes does NOT affect the probability of segregation for other pairs of chromosomes.
Genotype (H)
The genetic endowment of an individual from the two alleles present at a given locus.(H)
The genetic make-up that you inherit from your parents.
Homozygous (H)
Both alleles at a given locus are identical. (H)
AA not Aa
Heterozygous (H)
The two alleles at a given locus are different. (H)
Aa not AA
Phenotype (H)
The Observable appearance of a given genotype in the organism. (H)
Physical attributes that you inherit from your parents.
Dominant Allele (H)
An allele that masks the effect of the other allele in a heterozygous genotype. (H)
In "Aa" this allele is the "A"
Recessive Allele (H)
An allele whose effect is masked by the other allele in a heterozygous genotype. (H)
In "Aa" this allele is the "a"
Codominant (H)
Both alleles affect the phenotype of a heterozygous genotype, and neither is dominant over the other. (H)
"MN" Blood group.
Linkage (H)
Alleles on the same chromosome are inherited together. (H)
-Having to do with Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment

-Un-independent alleles
Crossing Over (H)
The exchange of DNA between chromosomes during meiosis. (H)
Describes the process of exchange
Recombination (H)
The production of new combinations of DNA sequences caused by exchanges of DNA during meiosis. (H)
The result of the process of exchange
Polygenic (H)
A complex genetic trait affected by two or more loci.

When several loci act to control a trait, many different genotypes and phenotypes may result. (H)
A number of physical characteristics, such as human skin color and height, may be --------
Pleiotropy (H)
A single allele that has multiple effects on an organism. (H)
In Humans the sickle cell allele affects the structure of the blood's Hemoglobin and also leads to changes in overall Body Growth and Health
Heritability (H)
The proportion of total variation of a trait due to genetic variation. (H)
What is passed on to you, by your parents
Major Genes (H)
Genes that have the primary effect on the phenotypic distribution of a complex trait. (H)
primary genes
Mutation (H)
A mechanism for evolutionary change resulting from random change in the genetic code. (H)
The ultimate source of all genetic variation.
Sickle Cell Allele (H)
An Allele of the hemoglobin locus. (H)
Individuals homozygous for this allele have Sickle Cell Anemia.
Monosomy (H)
A condition in which one chromosome, rather than a pair, is present in body cells. (H)
A lost chromosome
-Turner's Syndrome
Trisomy (H)
A condition in which three chromosomes rather than a pair occur in body cells. (H)
Has an extra chromosome.
-Down Syndrome
-Kline-felter's Syndrome