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122 Cards in this Set

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Fabric Structure
arrangement of textile components to form a single sheet of material
Examples of fabric structures
weaves, knits, non-wovens, quilts laminates
Multiple componenet Aggregates
quilts laminates
Weaving
the interlacing of yarns at right angles to each other
Loom
mechanical device used to form a textile structure by weaving
4 Requirements for loom operation
1)Must hold warp yarn under tension
2)Must hold warp yarn so filling yarn can be inserted
3)Must transport filling yarn across warp yarns
4)Must pack the filling and warp yarns together
Fabric Structure Sheets
Multiple sheets may be combined
Warp Beam
Holds warp yarns and governs width of fabric
Heddle
Warp yarns threaded through eye of heddle
Reed
Packs filling and warp yarns together
Harness
controls raising and lowering of heddles
Shuttle
Transports filling yarns across warp yarns
Cloth Beam
Holds fabric asit is woven
Weaving Steps:
Shedding
Picking
Beating
Taking up
Shedding
raises and lowers harness to make opening in warp yarns called shed
Picking
transporting of filling yarns across warp yarns through shed
Beating
process of forcing filling yarns into the warp yarns
Taking up
process of rolling woven cloth on the cloth beam
Shuttle Loom
-traditional loom carrier called the shuttle
-produces closed selvage on both sides of fabric
Shuttleless Loom
- modern
- use projectiles to carry filling yarn across warp
- at least one or both selvages are fringed
Advantages of Shuttless Loom
-Speed
-Less noise
-Easy to introduce additional yarns into weave
Selvage
finished lengthwise edges of a woven structure
Reinforce Selvages by:
Tucking
Twisting in figure eight
Heat Setting
Warp Yarns
Vertical
-"ends"
Filling Yarns
Horizontal
- "picks" or "weft"
Warp yarns are
STRONGER than filling yarns
-less likely to stretch and more likely to shrink
Yarn Direction ex:
64 x 60
warp filling

Count= TOTAL = 124
More Warp =
More Strength
More Filling =
more decorative, compact
3 Types of Basic Weave
Plain, Twill, Satin
Lengthwise Grain
-follows warp yarns
-most common
- "straight of grain"
Crosswise Grain
-follows filling yarns
- cut costs
-gives design or color
The Bias
does not line up with yarn
True Bias
-45 degree angle from selvage
-diagonal
Off Grain
Other directions across cloth that do not follow the direction of a yarn
Cloth, Fabric, thread Count
number of warp and filling yarns per square inch
Higher the cloth count
more closely woven the fabric
Low Thread Count Fabric Ex:
Crinoline
Buckram
Cheese Cloth (Scrim)
Gauze
Balance of cloth
proportion of warp to filling yarns
Good balance=
not more than 10 yd. difference in warp and filling directions
Usually higher proportion of
warp than filling yarns
Plain Weave
-simplest
-cheapest
-most common
- 1/1 checkerboard effect
Plain Weave Fabrics
Chiffon
Osnaburg
Muslin
Batiste
Crinoline
Organdy
Percale
Voile
Basket Weave
-variation of plain
-grouping warp and filling
-balanced or unbalanced
Most Common Basket Weave
Over 2, Under 2
Balanced Basket Weave
4 x4
Unbalanced Basket Weave
2 x 1
Basket Weave Fabrics
Aida Cloth
Canvas
Oxford Chambray
Monks Cloth
Rib Weave
-varies SIZES of warp and filling yarn
Warp Rib
Down
Weft or Filling Rib
Across
Calico or Print Cloth
printed back faded, ink doesn't have time to penetrate through
-balanced plain
(usually floral)
(clothes)
Satin Lengthwise direction
satin
Satin Crosswise direction
Sateen
More Twist =
LESS shine
Rib weave fabrics
Broad Cloth
Ottoman
Bengaline
Taffeta
Poplin
Pincord
Dimity
Faille
Grosgrain Ribbon
Variation in plain weave
-by color
-"yarn dyes"
Varying yarn color fabrics:
Madras
Chambray
Gingham
Woven Plaids
Varing a Plain Weave by Yarn Type Fabrics:
Crepe
Chiffon
Wool Crepe
Tweed
Shantung
Boucle Suiting
Ratine Suiting
Butcher Cloth
Ways to vary Plain Weave:
-Yarn Type
-Color (application & finish)
-Yarn Tension
Burlap
-course & heavy
-single jute yarns
-balanced plain
Crash
-rough
-balanced plain
-uneven yarns
-linene or manuf. fibers
Dimity
-unbalanced plain
-semi-sheer
-lengthwise rib
Crossbar Dimity
-made with heavier yarns in warp and filling directions
Tweed
-balanced plain
-heavy
-novelty yarns
Hopsacking
-heavy
-plain
Muslin
-balanced plain
-cotton
Percale
-balanced plain
-cotton
-finer than muslin
(bed sheets, clothes)
Batiste
-combed
-balanced plain
-light
(handkerchiefs, nighties)
Gingham
-combed or carded
-balanced plain
(coats, dresses, children)
Chambray
-balanced plain
-cotton
(shirts, childrens)
Challis
-balanced plain
-soft
-staple
(dresses)
Seersucker
-woven w/slack tension
(sportswear, curtains)
Crepe
-puckered, grainy
(apparel, furnishings)
Crepe (polyester)
-plain
-text. filament yarns
(women's apparel)
Voile
-lightweight
-high twist
-staple
(dresses, blouse)
NinonG
-open plain
-filament
-3rd warp missing increase transparency
(curtains, draperies, encasements)
Georgette
-filament
-lightweight
-balanced plain
(apparel)
Chiffon
-lusterous
-balanced plain
(apparel)
Twill weave
distinguished by diagonal lines on fabric called WALES
twill weaves have
floats
Float
portion of a yarn that lies exposed on the surface of the fabric
Wale Direction defines
Right-hand or left handed
Right-Hand Twill
Lower left to upper right
**Most Common
left handed
lower right to upper left
Wale Angle defines:
Steep twill or Flatten twill
Steep Twill
-greater than 45 degrees
(almost vertical)
Flatten Twill
(Reclining Twill)
-less than 45 degrees
-almost horizontal
Kinds of Twill Weaves
-Balanced Twill
-Warped Faced Twill
-Filling Faced Twill
-Herringbone Twill
-Wavy Twill
Balanced Twill
same # of warped and filling yarns showing on surface of fabric
Warped Faced Twill
predominance of warp yarns on surface
Filling Faced Twill
predominance of filling yarns on surface
Herringbone Twill
Twill reverses itself to form broken diagonal
Wavy Twill
direction of twill changes at intervals
Twill Weaves are:
-STRONGER & more Durable
-sheds soil
-hard to clean
-high twist
- good resistance to abraison
Twill Weave Fabrics:
herringbone
houndstooth
Gabardine
Glen Plaid
Denim
Surah
Chino
Surah
-lusterous
-light
-fine twill lines
-filament
(scarves, ties, blouses)
Herringbone
- broken balanced twill
-vertical right hand left hand
(chevron pattern resembling fish)
Houndstooth Twill
-pointed check effect
-2 diff. color yarns
(sportswear, suiting, upholstery)
Denim
-warp-faced twill
-yarn dyed
-steep line
"white- back)
*Indigo most common
(sportswear)
Gabardine
-clear-finished
-warp-faced twill
-twice warp than filling
-diagonal lines NOT visible on wrong side of fabric
(suits, sportswear)
Serge
-clear finished
-diagonal wale
-diagonal lines ARE visible on wrong side of fabric
-worsted wool or wool blends
(suiting)
Chino
-steep twill
-2 ply combed yarns
(trousers)
Glen Plaid
-combines houndstooth and other twill patterns
-contrasting colors in warp and fill. directions
(suits)
Ticking
-warp-faced twill weave
-uneven colored stripe woven in it
(mattress covers, upholstery fabrics)
Calvary Twill
-smooth surfaced
-Staple
-steep twill
-double twill line with small space in between each line
(apparel)
Whipcord
-steep
-raised twill wale line
(upholstery)
Satin Weave
-long floats on sruface of fabric
-yarns interlaced at IRREGULAR pattern to avoid diagonal effect
long yarn floats
add luster to satin weave fabrics
When floats run in warp direction
filament fabric is called satin
When floats run in filling direction
the staple fabric is called sateen
Satin usually composed of
filament yarns
Sateen usually composed of
combed staple yarns
Satin weaves have lowest # of
interlacings per unit area
Satin Weaves good for
ligning, but may wear out early due to exposed long float abrasion
Satin Weave Fabrics
Bridal Satin
Antique Satin
Crepe-Back Satin
Sateen
Milium
Satin
Satin
-smooth
-lusterous
-warp-faced
Antique Satin
-warped-faced
-simple warp, complex slub, uneven filling yarns
-more body than shantung
(draperies)
Crepe-Back Satin
-reversible satin
(dresses)
Charmeuse
-smooth & lusterous
-filament
-warped-faced
(evening dresses, lingere)
Sateen
-combed cotton
-filling or warped faced
-lusterous face
(dresses, bedspreads)
Milium
-filling or warped face
-lusterous
-aluminum bonding on back
-heat retention
(winter coats, cold climates)