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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
materials used to support a speaker's ideas
supporting materials
3 Kinds of Major Supporting Materials
specific case used to illustrate or represent a group of people, ideas, or conditions
specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
Brief example
story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
Extended example
example that describes an imaginary example
Hypothetical example
5 Tips for Using Examples
Clarify your ideas
Reinforce your ideas
Personalize your ideas
Make examples vivid and richly textured
Practice your delivery to enhance examples
numerical data
average value of a group of numbers
middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest
number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers
Tips for Using Statistics
Use to quantify ideas
Use sparingly
Identify sources
Explain stats
Round off complicated stats
Use vidual aids to clarify statistical trends
quotations or paraphrases used to support a point
testimony from people who are recognized as experts in their field
Expert Testimony
testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic
Peer Testimony
testimony that is presented word for word
Direct Quotation
to restate or summarize a sources ideas in one's own words
quoting a statement in way that distorts its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases around it
Quoting Out of Context
Tips for Using Testimony
Quote or paraphrase accurately
Use testimony from qualified sources
Use testimony from unbiased sources
Identify the people you quote or paraphrase
putting a speech together a particular way to achieve a particular result
Strategic Organization
major points developed in body of speech
usually between 2 and 5
Main points
5 Types of Ordering Main Points
Tips for preparing main points
Keep main points separate
Use same pattern of wording for main points
Balance amount of time devoted to main points
when main points follow a time pattern
Chronological order
when main points follow a directional pattern
Spatial order
when main points show a cause-effect relationship
Causal order
when first main point presents a problem and second presents solution
Problem-solution order
when main points are divided into subtopics
Topical order
4 Different Connectives
Internal Previews
Internal Summaries
word that connects ideas of speech and indicates relationship between them
word or phrase that indicates when speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
statement in body of speech that lets audience know what speaker will discuss next
Internal Preview
statement in body of speech that summarizes speaker's preceding points
Internal Summary
brief statement that indicates where speaker is in the speech or focuses attention on key ideas
keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being
audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors
Demographic audience analysis
Types of Demographic Audience Analysis
Sexual Orientation
Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background
Group Membership
Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors
Situational audience analysis
Types of Situational Audience Analysis
Physical setting
Disposition toward the Topic
Disposition toward speaker
Disposition toward occasion
frame of mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution, etc.
3 Dispositions Toward a Topic
2 Ways to Get Information from Audience
questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternative
Fixed-alternative questions
questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers
Scale questions
questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
Open-ended questions
listing of books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library
number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals, and to indicate where thay can be found on the shelves
Call number
research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines
Periodical Database
summary of magazine or journal article, written by someone other than original author
Types of Reference Works
Quotation Books
Biographical Aids
Atlases and Gazetteers
work that symthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers
Reference Work
comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches of human knowledge
General Encyclopedia
reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc.
Special Encyclopedia
reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year
reference work that provides information about people
Biographical Aid
book of maps
a geographical dictionary
program used to find information on the World Wide Web
Search Aid
search aid that indexes Web pages and checks them for sites that match a researcher's request
Search Engine
search aid that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing
Virtual Library
multitude of Web databases that are not indexed by search engines
Invisible Web
feature in a Web borwser that stores links to Web sites so they can be easily revisited
organization that is responsible for the content of a document on the internet
Sponsoring Organization
interview conducted to gather information for a speech
Research Interview
5 Things to do Before Interview
Define purpose of interview
Decide whom to interview
Arrange the interview
Decide whether to record interview
Prepare you questions
6 Things to do During Interview
Dress appropriately and be on time
Repeat purpose of interview
Set up recorder
Keep interview on track
Listen carefully
Don't overstay your welcome
Tips for Doing Research
Start early
Make a preliminary bibliography
Take notes effectively
Think about materials you research
list compiled early in research process of works that look like they contain helpful information
Preliminary Bibliography