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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Process through which children develope an awareness of social norms and values and acheive a distinct sense of self.
Social Self
Basis of self-conciousness in individuals, becoming aware of this social identity.
Awarness of ones distinct social identity, as a person seperate from others. Humans are not born with this, language is important in a child learning this.
Generalized Other
General values and moral rules of the culture in which they are developing.
Agencies of socialization
groups in which significant processes of socialization occur, ex: family, peer groups, work place
Social Roles
Socially defined expectations that a person in a given social position follows
Social Identity
Characteristics that other people attribute to an individual ex: student, mother, lawyer, homeless, things that make us the "same" as others
Self Identity
we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us. Things that make us "different"
Civil Inattention
not ignoring one anathor, recognition of presence, avoid being intrusive
Methods people use to make sense of what others do and say
Master status
determine overall position in society (most likely gender, or race)
noncomformity to a given set of norms
reaction from others to the behavior of an individual or group that is meant to ensure that they comply with a given norm
Formal Sanction
applied by specific body of people or agency
Informal Sanction
less organized, more spontaneous
An Example of an agency of socialization, the most important when young and very influential throughout life
George Herbert Mead
Children learn through example of adults (immitate actions), "taking on the role of another", acquire a sense of self.
Jean Paget's cognitive developement
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages (on seperate flashcards) children select and interpret what they see, each stage needs to be done to go on to the next stage.
Sensorimotor Stage (Jean Piaget)
0-2, infants learn by touching things, learn about environment
Preoperational Stage (Jean Piaget)
2-7, Piaget's main focus, mastery of language, Egocentric(not selfish, just can't see any persepctive but own).
Concrete Operational Stage (Jean Piaget)
7-11, Master abstract, logical notions, math skills, less egocentric
Formal Operational Stage (Jean Piaget)
11-15, Highly abstract and hypothetical ideas, trick quesitons. Not all adults reach this stage.
an example of an agency of socialization.
according to Mead, we learn to distinguish the "me" from the "I",
"I" is unsocialized infant(bundle of wants and needs), "me" is the social self.
Gender Learning
gender learning by infants is unconscious, male and female infants are treated differently, pg. 102 in book.
Non-verbal Communication
the exchange of information and meaning through facial expressions, gestures, and movements of the body. not really "body language".
Social Interaction
The process by which we act and react to those around us.
Harold Garfinkel
did experiments with students, if someone asked, "have a nice day" the student would respong with something like, "nice in what sense exactly?" or "which part of the day do you mean?"
Interactional Vandalism
when a subordinate person breaks the tacit rules of everday interaction. study of black men on the street talking to white women.
Unfocused interaction
whenever individuals exhibit mutual awareness of one another's presence, large number of people, communicating nonverbally with gestures.
Focused interaction
when individuals directly attend to what others say or do, an "encounter",
Front region/stage
social occasions or encounters in which individuals act out formal roles "onstage performances"
Back region/stage
where people assemble props and prepare themselves for interaction in the more formal setting, "off camera"
how social life is organized in time and space, ex: how houses are divided into different regions in which different types of activity take place
Impression management
preparing for the presentation of one's social role.
Social Constructionism
Theory that social reality is a creation of the interaction of individuals and groups
devience is response to imbalance in cultural goals($), institutional means of acheiving them
Differential association
Social groups discourage/encourage criminal behavior as acceptable
certain individuals viewed as deviant, potential troublemakers, that person views them self.
Durkheim's functionalist views of deviance
neccesary for a society to function, defense of boundaries, punishment of deviant acts(public awareness)
Cohen's "delinquent subculture"
lower class, distinct from middle class, values are different-distinct-alternative, from lower and middle class values
trying to achieve illegitimately
White-collar crime
Crime commited by more affluent members of society
Impartial, non-biased, ex: the dress is red
biased, prejuduced, individual, more like opinion ex: the dress is pretty