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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Psychology
the scientific discipline that attempts to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
6 Steps of Research
1. Observation
2. Theory/Hypothesis
3. Selecting a Method
4. Collect Data
5. Analyze Data
6. Report Data
When the researcher manipulates the situation, creating 2 groups. Determines if a treatment has consequences that would not otherwise occur.
**used most in social psychology
Random Assignment to Condition
Very important in research, RANDOMLY assigning people to groups. Randomness is key
Correlational Studies
No variables are manipulated, instead the researcher simply measures the variables and determines relationship. Convey relationship: move together
Negative: move opposite
Descriptive Hypothesis
Proposes a specific event pattern of behavior or pattern of data. Must include a prediction
Explanatory Hypothesis
Propose a mechanism by which the predicted event occurs. Must include prediction and explanation (because).
First Social Psych Study
1895 Norman Triplett
Social being who can reflect on his/her behavior, and has the ability to analyze self and surroundings.
Kurt Lewin's idea. Both personal and situational factors influence social behavior
A set of beliefs and values held by the members of a social group, explains culture to itself and other groups.
Preference for loosely knit social framework in society in which individuals are supposed to take care of themselves and immediate family only.
US mentality
Preference for tightly knit social framework in which individuals can expect their relatives/members of a social group to look after them with unquestioning loyalty.
Asian mentality?
Data collection method. Allows subjective states, but relies on people's accuracy.
Data collection method. In observational and experimental studies
Archival Information
Data collection method. Examine existing data.
Descriptive Statistics
Summarize and describe behavior or characteristics of a particular sample of participants.
Inferential Statistics
Move beyond mere description to make inferences about the larger population.
Observational Research
Scientific method involving systematic qualitative/quantitative descriptions of behavior. No manipulation, just recording.
Naturalistic Observation
Investigates behavior in its natural environment.
Participant Observation
Behavior in natural setting, but as a participant of a group being studied.
Correlational Studies
No variables are manipulated, instead the researcher simply measures the variables and determines relationship.
Correlation Coefficients
vary from -1 to 1
0 = no relationship at all
1= perfect positive relationship
-1= perfect negative relationship
3 Ethical Concerns
Harm, Invasion of privacy, and Deception
Cover Stories
False stories about the nature and purpose of a study; diverts attention from true purpose of study
Ethical principle of educating participants about the true nature of the investigation. Ensures that participants leave the study in a better mood than they came.
The self as an object of attention. This happens around age 2. 2 types, private and public self-awareness. We are only self-aware about 8% of the time.
The ways in which we control and direct our own actions. We must be self-aware to self-regulate.
Control Theory of Self-Regulation
Self-awareness allows us to assess how we are doing in meeting our goals and ideals. TOTE model: Test-Operate-Test-Exit. Process continues until self-reflection and standard are the same
(Higgins) Discrepancies between self-concept and ideal self or ought self. Ideal-actual discrepancy=dejection
Ought-Actual discrepancy=agitation
Ability to look internally into why we do the things we do. Generally, we are very bad at this. We do not have access to why things happen, we only know the output.
Sources of Self-Knowledge (4)
1. Introspection
3. Reflected Apraisals
4. Social Comparison
Self-Perception Theory
Theory that we often infer our internal states, such as our attitudes, by observing our behavior.
Reflected Apraisals
Social environment is major source of self-knowledge. The "looking-glass self" = I am as reflected by others, I am as others see me.
Social Comparison
What I am is only in reference to what you are. Can be used as esteem-maintenance strategy. Upward comparison: challenging, depressing. Downward comparison: unchallenging, but rewarding.
3 Kinds of Validity
1. Construct Validity: agreement b/w a theoretical concept and a specific measuring device or procedure.
2. Internal Validity: Did changes in In. Variable cause changes in Dep?
3. External Validity: Experimental realism.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
People, as selves, creatively shape reality through social interaction. The "I" makes decisions and initiates behavior.
The sum of a persons thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object. Self-concepts are always changing in little ways.
A persons evaluation of his/her self-concept. Low self-esteemed people have less clearly defined, stable, and complex self-concepts.
Habitual tendency to engage in self-awareness.
Emperical Sense
Accuracy in self can be devastating to good mental health. Positive illusions are pervasive and enduring in well adjusted individuals. They dont know themselves at all.
Positive Self Illusions (3)
1. Unrealistic positive self-evaluations (memory/judgment)
2. Illusions of control
3. Unrealistic optimism
Process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us; impression management
Dramaturgical Perspective
social interaction can be thought of as a play
When do we self-present? (4)
1. Public self-consciousness
2. Observers influence goal attainment
3. Goals are relevant and important
4. Observers impression does not equal desired impression
Goals of Self-Presentation (3)
1. Appear likable
2. Appear competent
3. Appear powerful
An attempt to get others to like us
Correspondent Inference Theory
The inference that the action of an actor corresponds to or is indicative of a stable personal characteristic. ex: if jane acts generous once, she is assumed to be a generous person
Augmenting Principle
If an event occurs despite the presence of strong opposing forces, we should give more weight to these possible causes.
Discounting Principle
As the number of possible causes increase, our confidence of any particular cause decreases.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to assume that behavior can be explained by corresponding internal dispositions of actors rather than external factors. ex: quiz master