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48 Cards in this Set

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What is cell differentation?
1) A process that occurs with the cells of a developing embryo bur can occur also in adults.
2) Determins what cell type each cell will become.
What is an embroyo?
An anmial or a plant in the early stages of development after fertilization.
What is the critical stage of development called when the tissue layers begin to form?
Gastrulation
The genes of each cell regulate the process of differentaion durning all stages of development. T or F
True
What are the three types of stem cells?
Totipotent
pluripotent
multipotent
What are cells that divide and remin undiffentiated called?
Stem cells
What is the process of cell duplication when 2 daughter cells receive the exact same nuclear material as the original cell?
Mitosis
What phase does the synthsis of new DNA occur?
S phase (synthsis)
What are the S phase, G1 and G2 classified as?
Interphase
What happens in the G1 phase?
The dna double helix unwinds and expose the bases.
Transcribing
How does the DNA double helix release to allow replication?
Enzymes initate the process of unwinding the DNA and releasing 2 complementary strands of that DNA so DNA POLYMERASE can duplicate them.
What is crude death rate?
" " birth rate?
The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
" " births per year.
What phase of interphase includes protein synthesis and cell growth?
G1
What are gamets?
Cells that are formed via sexual reproduction.
What is the process called which gametes reduce their DNA content
meiosis
Mitoosis can occur in cells such as? (3)
Skin
Liver
Other organs in the digestive system
What are celled called that have 2 sets of chromosomes called?
Diploid
Cells that contain a single set of chromosomes are called?
Haploid
What type of cells are fertilized eggs? haploid or diploid
Diploid
In a diploid cell, each individual chromosome has a twin chromosome called____.
homologous
In mitosis, the individual chromosome duplicated during what phase?
S phase
What is cytokinesis?
Separtation of two sets of chromosomes into different cells. Then mitosis is complete.
What phase is when:
The spindle fibers form and the centrioles moves to the opposite sides of the cell. The nuclear membrane disapears.
Mitosis

Prophase
What phase is when:
the chromosomes begin to separate from their daughters. Cytokineses begins.
mitosis

Anaphase
What phase is it when:
Identical sets of chromosomes are at the opposite ends of the cells. Spindle fibers disappear,nuclear membranes reappear, and cytokinesis completes.
mitosis

Telophase
What phase is it called when:
Homologous chromosomes condense and link in the process forming tetrad. This allows crossing over or recombination to occur.
Meiosis
Prophase I
What phase is it called when:
Homologous chromosomes separate, but the sister chromatids stay together.
Meiosis
Anaphase I
What phase is called when:
Cytokinesis has occurred and two haploid daughter cells are the result
Meiosis
Telophase I
What phase is it when:
Four haploid cells result after cytokinesis
Meiosis
Telophase II
During meiosis, a ____________ cell will give rise to four ________ cells.
Diploid / haploid
Mitosis and meiosis occur in all types of cells. T or F
False: Mitosis occurs to replace old cells in all cell types, while meiosis occurs in gametes to bring about genetic variation amongst offspring.
What are 2 characteristics of an autotrophs?
1) Produces its own food
2)Uses photosynthesis to live (chloroplast)
What are the 2 characteristics of a hetrotrophs?
1) Uses cellular respiration
2) They can not produce their own food
What is chloroplast?
An ORGANELLE
What is the enzyme called that speeds up the cell process in DNA synthesis (replicating the cells) ?
DNA polymerase
What is a germ cell?
Reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum
The DNA in gametes is the DNA passed on to future generations.
True or False
True
What is a phenotype?
The PHYSICAL expression of genetic traits.
What is a genotype?
.
It is the blueprint for building and maintain all structures within the cells of the body. The genes that you will have
_______ are the entire set of genes in organism, while _____ are the characteristics and traits that are expressed by those genes.
Genotype / phenotype
Does the moon provide its own source of energy?
No
Do stars have an internal source of energy?
Yes
What is the order of electromagnetic radiation from short to long?
Radio waves = Rattlesnakes
Microwave = May
Infrared = Inject
Visible = Venom
Ultraviolet = Under
X-ray = Xtreme
Gamma = aGitation
The visible part of the spectrum can be subdivided by color bands what are they from longet to shortest? band
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Ingigo
Violet
The organic compound rich in_____ act as a major source of biomass on Earth.
carbon
The Sun is primarily responsible for what other than photosynthsis?
Weather and climate conditions.
Kinetic energy formula broken down.
Kinetic energy=objects motion.
KE=mv2= 1/2 x 1kg(mass) x ____(m/s2 meters/second=velocity)=J (Joules)
(m=mass of an object v=velocity of an object)
Potiental energy (stored energy)
PE=mgh (mass/gravitity/height)
1kg x 10m/s2 x 1m