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52 Cards in this Set

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Eight levels of taxonomy hierarchy (From largest to smallest)
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Natural Selection
Process in which individuals of a species carrying certain mutations are better able to survive and reproduce in their natural environment. (Survival of the fittest)
Stretches of DNA on a chromosome that provide information for an organisms characteristics
Genes
2 or more different forms of a certain gene
Alleles
Adaptations
increase from generationto generation of alleles of genes that allows a species to survive in their environment
nucleic acids
chain of nucleotides
nucleotide
molecule that consists of a pentose (type of sugar), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
DNA base pairs
A-T , C-G
process of cells copying the instructions from the DNA into the RNA
Transcription
RNA base pairs
A-U , C-G
Translation
process of sending out proteins to entire cell by messenger RNA.
Prokaryotic cells contain:
cell wall, nucleoid, oranelles, plasmids, ribosomes and flagella
Eukaryotic cells contain:
E.R., Golgi apparatus, vesicles, mitochondria, microtubles, ribosomes, nucleus, nucleolus
Plants contain:
Chrloroplasts, which are organelles that contain chlorophyll.
______ contain sections called genes.
chromosomes
Genes contain ...
information that specifies the production of proteins.
A chain of Amino acids is?
protein
_____ are large structures of DNA that contain the _____, the blueprints for making an individual.
chromosomes, Genes.
_____ determines what cell type each cell will become.
differentiation
To form an embryo, a fertilized egg begins dividing and becomes a mass of cells called a ?
zygote
The process of cell duplicaion in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
Mitosis
interphase
G1, S, G2
Stages of mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
mitosis occurs among cells of the ...?
skin, liver, and other ogans in the digestive system
The process by which gametes reduce their DNA content
meiosis
Stages of meiosis
Prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1.
Prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2.
cells that contain 2 sets of chromosomes
Diploid cells
Haploid cells
Cells that contain 1 set of chromosomes.
cytokinesis
separating the two sets of chromosomes into different cells.
During meiosis, a _____ cell will give rise to four _____ cells.
diloid, haploid
cellular respiration
process in which glucose is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
by products of cell respiration
water and carbon dioxide
codon
Group of three nucleotides on RNA or DNA that encodes for a single, specific amino acid.
one gene matches to ...
one protein
each codon matches to a specific ...
amino acid
a chain of amino acids then forms a ...
protein.
(TRUE or FALSE) Genetic traits are expressed through the actions of proteins.
True
chromosomes contain stretches of DNA called _____, which contain the information that controls particular traits of an individual.
genes
when both parents give the offspring the same allele
homozygous
when each parent gives the offspring a different allele for a particular trait
heterozygous
punnett square
shows possible combinations of alleles given the two parents' geneotypes
a complete set of DNA for an individual that contains all genes
Genome
a mutagen is ...
a substance that induces mutations.
2 mechanisms that cause mutations
errors during DNA replication or a mutagen.
an enzyme used to speed up the process of DNA synthesis
DNA polymerase
mismatch repair
mechanism that scans over the DNA to find any mismatches of nitrogenous bases
mechanisms inspect the DNA for types of damge and attempt to repair it
excision repair.
reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum
Germ cells
Name the major enzyme responsible for DNA replication in cells
DNA polymerase
the physical expressions of genetic traits
phenotypes
organism's underlying genetic makeup or code
genotype
_____ are the entire set of genes in organisms, while _____ are the characteristics and traits that are expressed by those genes.
genotypes; phenotypes