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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings.
Acetylcholine (ACH)
-a compound that yields H+ ions in solution or a solution with the concentration of H+ exceeding OH.
Acid
-situation in which the pH of the blood is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45.
Acid-base balance
-the row of elements below the periodic table, from thorium to lawrencium.
Actinides
-a large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve fiber.
Action potential
-membrane transport processes for which ATP is provided (e.g., solute pumping and endocytosis_
Active transport
-receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system.
Adaptation
-molecular attraction between dissimilar molecules; attraction between water molecules and molecules that make up the inside of a xylem tube.
Adhesion
-nerve fibers the release norepinephrine.
Adrenergic fibers
- in the presence of oxygen.
Aerobic
-nerve that contains processes of sensory neurons and carries nerve impulses to the central nervous system.
Afferent (sensory) nerve
-clumping of (foreign) cells; induced by cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes.
Agglutination
-muscle that bears the major responsibility for effecting a particular movement; a prime mover.
Agonist
-the column of elements from lithium to francium.
Alkali metals
-any of the alternative forms of a gene.
Allele
-overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen.
Allergy (hypersensitivity)
-a cluster of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity.
Alpha particle
-fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the embryo.
Amnion
-energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances.
Anabolism
-without the presence of oxygen.
Anaerobic
-a hormone that controls male secondary sex characteristics, such as testosterone.
Androgen
-an atom or molecule with a negative charge.
Anion
-the negative electrode at which oxidation occurs.
Anode
-a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell (a daughter cell of an activated B lymphocyte) and binds specifically to an antigen; an immunoglobulin.
Antibody
-refers to a solution with water as the solvent.
Aqueous
-blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into circulation
Arteries
-the junction of two or more bones.
Articulation (joint)
-method of producing a new organism from only one parent by means of mitosis.
Asexual reproduction
-the smallest amount of an element; a nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons.
Atom
-the number of protons in the nucleus of the chemical element.
Atomic number
-the weight in grams of one mole of the chemical element; approximately the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Atomic weight
-reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use.
Atrophy
-equal volume of gases contain the same number of molecules.
Avogadro's law
-neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process; the conduction portion of a nerve cell.
Axon
-able to kill bacteria.
Bactericidal
-rate at which energy is expended (heat produced) by the body per unit of time under controlled (basal) conditions; 12 hours after a meal, at rest.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
-a compound that yields OH ions in solution of a solution with the concentration of OH exceeding H+.
Base
-an electron emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity.
Beta particle
-force exerted by blood against a unit area of the blood vessel walls; difference in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circulation.
Blood pressure
-the temperature at which liquid changes to a gas.
Boiling point
-a network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for purpose of filtration.
Bowman's capsule
-the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure.
Boyle's law
-the branching air passages inside the lungs.
Bronchioles
-chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions.
Buffer
-a unit of energy, equal to 4.184 joules; the energy required to increase the temperature of 1.0g of water by one degree Celsius.
Calorie
-the rising of a liquid in a small tube because of adhesive and cohesive forces.
Capillary action
-organic compound containing carbon, dydrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogen-to oxygen ratio is 2:1.
Carbohydrate
-a chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being chemically altered.
Catalyst
-the positive electrode at which reduction occurs.
Cathode
-an atom or molecule with a positive charge.
Cation
-the volume of gas varies directly with temperature.
Charles' Law
-green plant pigment that is found in chloroplast and is necessary for photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll
-plant cell structures containing light-sensitive chlorophyll.
Chloroplast
-transporting oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues via cardiovascular system
Circulation
-descendants of a single cell.
Clone
-nonprotein substance associated with and activating an enzyme, typically a vitamin.
Coenzyme
-attraction between similar molecules (e.g., attraction between two water molecules).
Cohesion
-suspension that does not separate on standing.
Colloid
-pressure created in a fluid by large non-diffusible molecules, such as plasma proteins, that are prevented from moving through a (capillary) membrane; such substance tend to draw water to them.
Colloidal osmotic pressure
-group of bacteria cells.
Colony
-amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled.
Complemental air
-a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements.
Compound
-the relative abundance of a solute in a solution.
Concentration
-steroid hormones released by the adrenal cortex.
Corticosteroids
-seed leaf that stores food for a plant embryo of seed plants.
Cotyledon
-atoms linked together by sharing valence electrons.
Covalent bond
-the 12 nerve pairs that arise from the brain.
Cranial nerves
-specially prepared nutritious substance used to grow experimental organisms.
Culture medium
-the cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane.
Cytoplasm
-a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or elements.
Decomposition
-to lose wate.
Dehydrate
-branching neurons that transmit the nerve impulse toward the cell body.
Dendrite
-sugar formed by the combination of two simple sugar molecules.
Disaccharide
-a nucleic acid found in all living cells which carries the organism's hereditary information.
DNA
-the process that occurs before ell division and insures that all daughter cells have identical genes.
DNA replication
-occur when one allele masks or suppresses the expression of its partner
Dominant traits
-the interaction of living organisms with their environment
Ecosystem
-a conducting substance that connects an electrolyte to an external circuit
Electrode
-an ionic substance that has high electrical conductivity.
Electrolyte
-a light subatomic particle with negative charge; found in orbitals surrounding an atomic nucleus.
Electron
-a substance that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means; each chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus (for example, all atoms of hydrogen have 1 proton, and toms of oxygen have 8 protons).
Element
-removing metabolic wastes from the body via renal system.
Elimination
-early development of an animal or plant after fertilization; cylindrical structure with a seed the develops into a plant.
Embryo
-suspension of two liquids which are incapable of mixing or attaining homogeneity.
Emulsion
-ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood.
Endocrine glands
-system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones.
Endocrine system
-the concept of motion or heat.
Energy
-protein catalyst; chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction in living tissue without itself being chemically altered.
Enzyme
-a balanced condition resulting from two opposing reactions.
Equilibrium
-red blood cells.
Erythrocytes
-hormones that stimulate female secondary sex characteristics; female sex hormones.
Estrogen
-process of breathing out.
Expiration
-internal fluid located outside cells.
Extracellular fluid
-two laws of electrolysis relating the amount of substance to the quantity of electric charge.
Faraday's Laws
-layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscle.
Fascia
-release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen; anaerobic respiration.
Fermentation
-fusion of sperm and egg nuclei.
Fertilization
-release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen; anaerobic respiration.
Fermentation
-release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen; anaerobic respiration.
Fermentation
-developental stage extending from the ninth week of development to birth.
Fetus
-a blood protein that is converted to fibrin (a white, insoluble protein) during blood clotting.
Fibrinogen
-fusion of sperm and egg nuclei.
Fertilization
-fusion of sperm and egg nuclei.
Fertilization
-developental stage extending from the ninth week of development to birth.
Fetus
-developental stage extending from the ninth week of development to birth.
Fetus
-liquid that passes through the pores in a filter.
Filtrate
-a blood protein that is converted to fibrin (a white, insoluble protein) during blood clotting.
Fibrinogen
-ovarion structure consisting of a developing egg surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells; colloid-containg structure of the thyroid gland.
Follicle
-a blood protein that is converted to fibrin (a white, insoluble protein) during blood clotting.
Fibrinogen
-liquid that passes through the pores in a filter.
Filtrate
-liquid that passes through the pores in a filter.
Filtrate
-hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
-ovarion structure consisting of a developing egg surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells; colloid-containg structure of the thyroid gland.
Follicle
-ovarion structure consisting of a developing egg surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells; colloid-containg structure of the thyroid gland.
Follicle
-the thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reactio to proceed; also called Gibbs free energy.
Free energy
-hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
-hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
-the thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reactio to proceed; also called Gibbs free energy.
Free energy
-the temperature at which liquid changes to solid.
Freezing point
-the thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reactio to proceed; also called Gibbs free energy.
Free energy
-the temperature at which liquid changes to solid.
Freezing point
-the temperature at which liquid changes to solid.
Freezing point
-the fixed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied.
Fulcrum
-the fixed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied.
Fulcrum
-the fixed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied.
Fulcrum