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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are autotrophs?
Organisms that harvest sunlight for energy.
What are heterotrophs?
Organisms that consume other organisms for energy.
What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration? Anaerobic respiration? Fermentation?
Oxygen. An inorganic molecule other than oxygen. An organic molecule.
What produces most ATP? How does it function?
The enzyme ATP synthase. It has a rotary motor driven by protons moving down their gradient.
In what two ways do cells catabolize organic molecules to produce ATP?
Substrate-level phosphorylation and aerobic respiration.
What are the four stages of glucose catabolism?
1. Glycolysis 2. Pyruvate Oxidation 3. Krebs Cycle 4. Electron Transport Chain
What is substrate-level phosphorylation? Where and when does it occur?
The formation of ATP by transfering a phosphate to ADP directly from an intermediate. In the cytoplasm during glycolysis.
What is aerobic respiration? Where and when does it occur?
The formation of ATP by ATP synthase. In the mitochondria during pyruvate oxidation, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.
What are the four steps of glycolysis?
1. Glucose Priming 2. Cleavage and Rearrangement 3. Oxidation 4. ATP Generation
How many net ATP are produced by glycolysis?
Two ATP.
What is NAD and its function?
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide. It is an electron carrier for electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain.
Where does Pyruvate Oxidation occur and what does it yield?
In the mitochondria, acetyl-CoA, NADH, and CO2.
The Krebs Cycle oxidizes ______ in what two steps?
Acetyl-CoA, Priming, Energy Extraction (4 Oxidations, 1 Substrate-Level Phosphorylation)
Glucose catabolism occurs through a series of _____ reactions.
What is the electron carrier for the catabolism of glucose?
Where is the electron transport chain?
The inner mitochondrial membrane.
_______ ions are moved across the membrane in the electron transport chain to create a gradient.
What is the total theoretical yield of aerobic respiration?
36 ATP.
What is the passage of protons through ATP synthase called?
At what two points is aerobic respiration inhibited, and by what?
At glycolysis by phosphofructokinase. At Krebbs' cycle by citrate synthetase.
How are proteins metabolized? Fats?
Deamination. Beta-oxidation (forms acetyl-CoA, feeds directly to Krebbs').
What happens in fermentation?
Electrons from the glycolytic breakdown of glucose are donated to an organic molecule. Regenerates NAD+ from NADH.
What are the 6 major steps of the evolution of cellular respiration?
1.Degredation (breaking down molecules for energy) 2.Glycolysis (breakdown of glucose) 3.Anaerobic Photosynthesis (light to generate ATP using H2S) 4.Oxygen-forming Photosynthesis (H20 instead of H2S) 5.Nitrogen Fixation (needed for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis) 6.Aerobic Respiration (possibly modification of photosynthesis)
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm