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32 Cards in this Set

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Where are proteins in the cell made? How was this proved?
At ribosomes. Cells were placed in a solution of radioactive amino acids. The amino acids first appeared at the ribosomes.
What are the three sites of the ribosome? How many parts is a ribosome divided into?
The A, P, and E sites. Two.
What are ribosomes made of? What does each substance do?
Proteins (stability) and RNA (actual function)
What are the different types of RNA? What do they do?
rRNA (site of protein assembly), tRNA (take amino acids to ribosome), mRNA (copied from DNA to code for protein)
What is transcription? How does it start?
The copying of mRNA from DNA. It starts when RNA Polymerase binds at a promoter binding site.
What is translation?
The construction of a polypeptide from the code sequence on mRNA.
How many RNA nucleotides code for a single amino acid? What are these groups called?
Three. Codons or Triplets.
What is gene expression?
The entire process of transcription and translation.
Does the code that determines which codons code for which amino acids differ greatly between organisms?
No.
The genetic code for which two organelles is different?
Mitochodria and Chloroplasts.
In transcription, what is the strand of DNA that is copied to RNA called?
The template or antisense strand.
In transcription, what is the strand of DNA that is not copied to RNA called?
The coding or sense strand.
In RNA synthesis, the RNA polymerase adds nucleuotides to which end of the synthesizing strand?
The 3' end.
Where does transcription start on the DNA strand?
On the promoter.
What stops the gene transcription?
The GC hairpin.
What are the three RNA polymerases in eukaryotes and what do they synthesize?
RNA Polymerase I (rRNA), RNA Polymerase II (mRNA), RNA Polymerase III (tRNA)
What is an initiation complex?
A system of protein transcription factors that bind to the promoter region that enhances the rate of transcription.
How is mRNA modified after transcription in eukaryotes?
A GTP and methyl group is put on the 5' cap and a poly-adenine tail is put on the 3' end. Also, introns are cut out of the mRNA.
What activating enzymes attach the amino acids to the tRNA anticodons?
Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases
What is the start signal codon in translation? What are the three nonsense (stop) codons?
AUG. UAA, UAG, UGA.
Does translation have an initiation complex?
Yes
What happens in the elongation stage of translation?
Codons are exposed and bound to anticodons sequentially from the start codon.
What is the process of the ribosome moving down the mRNA strand called? In what direction does it move?
Translocation. 5' to 3'.
What are exons? What are introns?
Exons are sequences of DNA that code for protein. Introns are sequences of DNA that do not code for protein.
When small nuclear ribonuclearproteins (snRNPs) associate with other proteins, they form ________.
Spliceosomes
What do the spliceosomes do? What is the process called?
They remove the introns from the mRNA and splice together the exons. Alternative splicing.
Do prokaryotes tend to have many introns?
No, mostly eukaryotes have introns.
Can prokaryotic mRNA have more than one gene in them?
Yes.
Does prokaryotic mRNA have to be completely formed before it is translated?
No.
How does the beginning of translation differ in prokaryotes from eukaryotes?
In prokaryotes, translation begins at an AUG codon just after a special nucleotide sequence.
Which has larger ribosomes, eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm