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27 Cards in this Set

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What is the nature of the genetic material in prokaryotes? Eukaryotes?
Single circular molecule. Double helix strand structure contained within a nucleus.
What is the material that fills the cell?
Cytoplasm.
What is the nature of the plasma membrane?
It is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
What are the smallest living units of an organism?
Cells.
Why are most cells so small?
A smaller size leads to a larger surface area to volume ratio, which greatly lessens diffusion time.
What is resolution?
The minimum distance between two points so that the two points appear distinct from one another.
Describe the three microscope types.
Compound- magnifies with lenses. Transmission Electron- electrons pass through the specimen. Scanning Electron- electrons bounce off the specimen.
In prokaryotes, what is the cell wall made of?
Peptidoglycan (carbohydrate matrix cross linked with short polypeptides)
What is a gram stain? What color is gram positive? Negative?
A process used to determine bacteria's susceptablity to antibiotics. Purple. Red.
What are flagellum? What are pili? What's the difference?
Flagellum and pili are both protrusions of the cell. Flagellum are used for movement. Pili are used to move genetic material.
What is unique about eukaryotic cells?
They have membrane bound organelles, they are compartmentalized, they have a nucleus, and they have chromosomes.
What happens in the nucleolus?
Intense ribosomal RNA synthesis.
What do nucleur pores do?
They control the movement of materials into and out of the nucleus.
Except during cellular division, DNA is stored as _________.
Chromatin.
What makes up a nucleosome?
A histone with the DNA strand wrapped around it.
What does the endomembrane system do? What's the difference between rough and smooth ER.
Compartmentalize the cell. Rough is studded with ribosomes and makes proteins. Smooth is less studded and makes lipids and carbohydrates.
Describe the Golgi apparatus.
It takes in molecules through the cis face, prepares them for transport within the cell, and excretes them from the trans face.
How are most molecules modified as they pass throught he Golgi apparatus?
A short sugar chain is usually added. With proteins, forms a glycoprotein. With lipids, forms a glycolipid.
What are the different types of vesicles and their function?
Lysosomes (break down old organelles), Microbodies (isolate chemical reactions)
What are ribosomes?
Structures in the cytoplasm that assemble proteins from an mRNA transcript.
What are mitochondria?
Organelles that create ATP through oxidative metabolism.
What are chloroplasts?
Structures in the cell that have stacks of thylakoids called grana that absorb light and convert it to usable energy.
What is the theory about the origin of eukaryotes?
Endosymbiosis (prokaryotes engulfed other organisms)
What are the different types of cytoskeleton?
Actin filaments (cell movement), Microtubules (formed during division), and Intermediate Filaments (structure).
What is the central vacuole?
It is the large storage facility for water and other materials in plant cells.
What do animal cells form instead of a cell wall?
An extracellular matrix.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm