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15 Cards in this Set

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Matter is composed of particles called _______.
Atoms
What are the different particles within an atom, what is their charge, and where are they found?
Electron (-, electron cloud), Proton (+, nucleus) Neutron (0, nucleus)
What is are isotope?
Atoms of the same element but with a different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
What is half-life? What is the approximate half-life of carbon-14?
The time it takes for half of a sample of a radioactive isotope to degrade. 5600 years.
What are ions? What are cations? Anions?
Atoms that are not electrically neutral. Positively charged ions. Negatively charged ions.
What is oxidation? What is reduction?
The loss of an electron. The gain of an electron.
What is an orbital?
The probable location of an electron.
What does the octet rule state?
Atoms are stablest and least reactive when the outermost electron shell is filled.
What are the different bond types?
Ionic (cation/anion attraction), Covalent (electrons shared), Hydrogen Bonds (hydrogens between molecules attract).
Describe ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic bonds are weak, electrical, and dissolve in water. Covalent bonds are strong and less reactive.
What happens in a chemical reaction?
Bonds are formed or broken. Reactions are influenced by temperature, concentration of reactants and products, and the presence of catalysts.
What are some of the properties of water?
It is electronegative, it is polar, it experiences cohesion and adhesion, it has a high specific heat and heat of vaporization, it is a powerful solvent, it organizes nonpolar molecules, it ionizes, and it has a neutral pH.
Where do acids and bases fall on the pH scale?
Acids have pH below 7, bases above.
What are buffers?
A substance that stores and releases hydrogen ions according to pH, keeping the pH of its environment relatively stable.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm