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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Of fungi, plants, and animals, which express genes at different times?
All of them.
Within an hour after fertilization in mammals, the zygote goes through ________ and forms many _________.
Cleavage, Blastomeres.
What are the two poles that exist after this? Is there an overall size increase in the fetus?
Animal and Vegetal pole. No, the fetus is just a larger number of smaller cells.
What is the name for the fetus when water is drawn into the mass of cells forming a hollow ball?
Blastula or Blastocyst.
What is formed when some cells of the blastula push inward?
Gastrula
How do the cells of the blastula move?
They use lamellipodia.
What are the three germ layers in the gastrula?
Ectoderm (outer layer), Mesoderm (middle layer), Endoderm (inner layer)
What do the three germ layers develop into?
Ectoderm- skin and nerves, Mesoderm- skeleton, muscles, and blood vessels, Endoderm- stomach, lungs, and most internal organs
What happens in neurulation?
A zone of the ectoderm on the dorsal surface thickens, and then rolls to form the neural tube. The neural tube later becomes the brain and spinal chord.
What does the neural crest form? What do somites form?
Sense organs. Skeletal muscles.
How many body types do most insects have? What are they?
Two. Larvae (gather food) and Adult (can fly and reproduce)
In insect development, which genes produce mRNA before fertilization? What happens to the mRNA and what does it do?
The maternal genes. It is moved by nurse cells and it determines the initial course of development.
What is a syncytial blastoderm?
The cell with about 6,000 nuclei formed after 12 nuclear divisions without cytokinesis that follow fertilization.
Describe larvae.
Larvae are formed and begin to feed. They shed their exoskeletons periodically. The go through 3 phases, or instars, in 4 days. It metamorphs into the adult.
What are imaginal discs?
Groups of cells in the larvae that do not function in the larvae but form key parts of the adult's body.
Describe metamorphosis.
The larvae develops a hard shell and becomes a pupa. The larvae breaks down to feed the imaginal discs. The pupa breaks open releasing the adult.
How much do plant cells move?
Very little. They are pretty much in a fixed position when they are created.
How do plants grow?
They build new cells around the old ones with meristems.
In early plant development, the zygote divides into a ball of cells that later become the shoot and a ________ that later becomes the roots.
Suspensor
What are the three plant tissues and their function?
Epidermal- skin, outermost layer, Ground- bulk of plant, food and water storage, Vascular- food and water transport.
What are cotyledons?
Seed leaves that store food.
What happens right after the plant develops cotyledons?
Development is paused and a seed is formed.
What is germination?
The continuation of plant development from a seed. It occurs in response to an environmental stimulus (water, temp, light...).
What is meristemic development?
The stage of development where meristems become active and the body of the plant is formed.
What is morphogenesis?
The development of the plant body according to the shape of the cells, largely determined by the amount of water present.
How many somatic cells form from a single fertilized nematode egg?
959 (The development of each cell of the nematode has been mapped)
How do cells move?
They use adhesion molecules. Some tissues have gaps filled with polysaccharide chains that the adhesion molecules bind to.
What is induction?
The switching of a cell from one developmental path to another based on interactions with an adjacent cell.
In some cases of induction, ________ convey position by secreting diffusable _________.
Organizers, Morphogens
What does totipotent mean?
Potentially capable of expressing all genes.
What is determination? How is it different from differentiation?
The commitment of a cell to its specialization. Differentiation is the actual specialization of the cell.
Is determination reversible?
Yes, but it is a little tricky.
What is pattern formation?
The development of the basic pattern of body compartments according to positional information.
What is the expression of homeotic genes?
The determination of the form or organ that the body segments will have. The genes involved usually include homeobox.
What is homeobox?
The sequence of nucleotides that code for the homeodomain, which regulates gene expression.
What is apoptosis?
The process of a cell shriveling, shrinking, and dying in a preprogrammed timeframe.
What is necrosis?
The process of injured cells swelling and bursting, releasing their contents into the extracellular fluid.
What are the theories of aging?
Accumulated Mutation, Telomeric Depletion (extra DNA at ends shortens with replications), Wear and Tear (cells become damaged with time), Gene clock (genes regulate aging)
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm