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25 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Hammerling Expirement and what it discovered.
Cells of Acetabularia were cut up to determine which were able to express hereditaty information. It discovered that the nucleus stores genetic information.
What did the transplantion expirements conducted by Briggs and King in 1952 and by Steward in 1958 prove?
Each eukaryotic cell contains a full set of genetic instructions.
What is transformation?
The movement of genes between organisms.
What did the Griffith expirement show?
Movement of materials can alter genetic make up.
What was Avery's expirement and what did it show?
Avery removed almost all of the protein from some bacteria. There was no decrease in transformation. Herego, protein is not what determines hereditary information.
What did the Hershey-Chase show?
DNA, not protein, determines hereditary information.
DNA is made up of ________, which are polymers of _______, which are composed of _________, _________, and _________.
Nucleic acids, nucleotides, a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, a nitrogenous base
What is the bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the hydroxyl group of another called?
A phosphodiester bond.
What are purines? Pyrimidines? What is Chargaff's rule?
Purines are large bases (Adenine and Guanine). Pyrimidines are small bases (Thymine and Cytosine). Chargaff's rule states A pairs with T, and G with C.
Who produced the X-ray diffraction photograph? Why was it important?
Rosalind Franklin. It showed that DNA was helical with a 2 nanometer diameter.
What did Watson and Crick deduce?
The shape and structure of DNA.
How is DNA replication semi-conservative? What expirement proved that DNA replication was semi-conservative?
The sequence of nucleotides is conserved, but the original double strand is not. The Meselson-Stahl expirement.
Where does DNA replication begin? What is required to allow constructive enzymes to bind to the parent strand?
Replication Origin. A Primer.
What enzyme strings together nucleotides to form the daughter strand? In what direction does this enzyme move down the parent strand?
DNA Polymerase III. From the 3' end toward the 5' end.
What is the difference between endonucleases and exonucleases?
Endonucleases cut away nucleotides inbetween the ends of the strand. Exonucleases chew away at the ends of the strand.
Because DNA Polymerase can't link the first nucleotides of a DNA strand, a _______ is formed by _________, also known as _______.
RNA Primer, RNA Polymerase, Primase
What are leading stands and lagging strands?
Leading strands are the stands of DNA that replicate toward the replication fork. Lagging strands replicate away from the fork.
What are Okazaki fragments?
The short stretches of DNA on the lagging strand.
What does DNA ligase do?
It attaches the Okazaki fragments together.
What does DNA gyrase do?
It relieves the torque caused by unraveling the double helix.
Why is DNA replication semi-discontinuous?
Although the leading strand replicates continuously, the lagging strand replicates in fragments.
What is a replisome?
A large macromolecular protein that replicates DNA. It is very fast and very accurate.
What are the three stages of DNA replication?
Initiation (always occurs at same site), Elongation (most of the replication), and Termination (details unclear)
How do genes produce their effects?
They each code for the structure of an enzyme.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm