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58 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 types of Political culture?
1. Moralistic
2. Individualistic
3. Traditionalistic
A set of beliefs that prevails within a state over an extended period of time (a shared set of norms & values)
Political culture
What are Elazar's classifications on the 3 types of political culture? (Moralistic, Individualistic, Traditionalistic)
Moralistic="Minnesota liberals"
Individualistic="Every man for himself"
Traditionalistic="Texas conservatives"
- Positive view on public service; gov't act to promote public interest & policy innovation
-HIGH impact on spending
-HIGH interparty competition
-HIGH voter turnout
-Active citizens
Moralistic political culture
-Gov't is utilitarian (service provider)
-Businesslike (^ corruption)
-"Everyman for himself"
-MODERATE gov't spending
-MODERATE party competition
-MODERATE voter turnout (leave politics to professionals)
-HIGH corruption
Individualistic political culture
-Fundamentally conservative
-Purpose: maintain status quo--gov't = positive role
- Hierarchy of power & strong beliefs
-LOW gov't spending
-LOW political participation
-LOW levels of innovation
-WEAK party competition
Traditionalistic political culture
The role of political parties has ___ in recent decades?
declined
The 2 major political parties play larger roles at the ____ level?
State level than the national level
For Democrats, what are the trusts on broad categories of issues? (6)
1. Main problems
2. Immigration
3. Education
4. Rx Drugs
5. Medicare
6.Health Ins
For Republicans, what is the trust on broad categories of issues? (5 issues)
1. Main problems
2. Immigration
3. Education
4. War on Terror
5. Iraq
What does the Ranney Index measure & what does it show us?
-Measures interparty competition that calculates a # of factors that measure the degree of competition in each state.
-Shows us: % of seats won by each party in house & senate, how long either party controlled gov't, & the proportion of time those offices have been divided between the 2 parties
What gives states the authority to determine the "times, places, and manner of holding elections?"
U.S. Constitution
The Secretary of State does what 3 things?
1. Sets dates
2. Qualifies candidates
3. Prints & counts ballots
What are the state ballot access rules? (6)
1. Registration deadlines
2. Voter ID requirement
3. Absentee & early voting
4. Vote by mail (OR)
5. Voting equipment
6. Disenfranchisement & restoration of voting rights
4 Types of Primary Elections
1. Closed - Must be registered party member
2. Open - Independents & members of other party or All voters
3. Blanket - Mix & Match parties (invalidated in 2000 cept for LA=no partisan)
4.Runoff - No majority, top 2 candidates in runoff
Party leaders prefer what to what because they discourage crossover & strategic voting.
Prefer closed to open
Organizations that choose, support, and nominate candidates for elected offices.
Political party
How do interest groups differ from political parties?
-Don't run candidates for office under their own labels
-Do MORE than organize political process
-Support candidates for office & lobby existing officeholders
-Provide financial & personal resources to candidates
How has interest group behavior changed over time?
-# has increased
-Rise of candidate-centered politics has increased political access of interest groups & lobbyists
-Lobbying has become highly professionalized
What are the characteristics of professionalized state legislatures? What's the impact of professionalization?
Full-time professionalized legislatures have higher salaries & more staff, increased institue complexity, increased visibility
Effects: more effective @ drafting legislation, more resources for members, greater ability to monitor range of issues
What happens to Third Parties in relation to state ballot access rules?
-They are more successful at the state & local levels
-Face # of institutional barriers
-Major parties set ballot thresholds & registration requirements to discourage it
Trends in party competition within states. (3)
-Increased mobility influences strength of pol culture
-Interest groups align w/ one party but seek influence through the party in power
-States = competitive
Individual districs=not comp
What's the role of politics in defining legislative districts?
In charge of redrawing leg districts according to shifts in population

- Apportionment :alloting districts
-Redistricting: drawing new boundaries
-Both based on census data
What are the consequences of political influence on defining leg. districts?
-Gerrymandering (odd shapes)
-Malapportionment (violates "one person, one vote")
-Majority-Minority Districts
(Increased election of more Af Am but changed compostition of other districts)
Political culture reflects this, or regional patterns.
sectionalism
What are the 4 ballot types?
1. Office group(MA)- office sought, name & party
2. Party column(IA)- columns by party
3. Straight ticket -voting for all R or all D candidates
4. Australian ballot (secret)
% of eligible citizens who register to and do vote
(competitive elections drive up rates of this)
voter turnout
He wrote "American Federalism: A View from the States" - a classification of states, arguing that politics in each state were shaped by sectionalism, migration patterns, & political culture
Daniel Elazar
where each district's boundaries are redrawn following the census - makes seats less competitive
redistricting
3 Dimensions of a Party
1. Party in the Electorate
2. in the Gov't
3. Organization
People who are not consistently loyal to candidates of any one party
-true independents
-focused upon by nat'l level
Swing Voter
Groups that struggle to control message w/n a party
-focused upon by state level b/c voters are more ideological, resulting in larger # of these
Factional Splits
-Democrats evolved from these
Politics where candidates promote themselves & own campaigns rather than relying on party orgs
Candidate-centered politics
When a voter identifies strongly with one of the parties and can be considered D or R
Voter ID
Parties present clear choices to voters and parties are held accountable for such choices
Responsible Party Model
Political orgs controlled by small # of people and run for selfish or partisan ends.
**Control of public sector jobs, contracts, & party activity**
Party machines
Ability of elected officials/leaders to hand out jobs to their supporters rather than hiring based on merit
Patronage
A reform of nominating convention - shifts control of nomination process from party leaders to indiviual voters
Primary Elections
4 Types of Primary Elections
1. Closed - must be registered party member
2. Open - Independents & members of other party or all voters
3. Blanket - Mix & Match parties
4. Runoff - no majority, top 2 candidates
Groups formed for the purpose of raising money to elect/defeat political candidates
Political Action Committees (PACs)
Campaign finance that was banned in federal elections in 2002.
-Not subject to fed regulation that can be raised and spent by state parties
Soft $$
Ad campaigns or other activities that are run by a party or an outside group w/o direct knowledge of a particular candidate for office
Independent Expenditure
What are the trends in voter identification with the major political parties and 3rd parties?
-Attempt to appeal to as much of the electorate as possible
-"blur" their positions to discourage opponents
-has increased the role of interest groups
-parties weaken=candidates act as free agents
3 Types of Interest Groups
1. Membership
-Sierra Club, Am Cancer Society
2.Trade Ass.
-Trial Lawyers Ass
3. Individual Institutions
-MCI WorldCom, Big Tobacco
A rise of candidate-centered politics has increased the political access of ___ and ___ in the nomination process.?
Interest groups and lobbyists
Trying to persuade legislators or other policy makers to take a position favorable to one's own
Lobbying
Assembling of an alliance of groups to pursue a common goal.
Coalition building
Practice where a legislator will give a colleague a vote on a particular bill in return for that colleague's vote on another bill to be considered later
Logrolling
___ and ___ are longterm tactics to pass legislation.
Coalition building and logrolling
Debates that under Senate rules drag on, blocking final action on the bill under consideration & preventing other bills from being debated
Filibusters
Amendments to a bill that are not central to its intent
Riders
These are short-term tactics to prevent the passage of a particular piece of legislation
Filibusters and Riders
The most important function for legislators to enhance the probability of reelection by helping those in their voting districts
Constituent Services
Requests for help from constituents
casework
Legislature insures proper implementation of its laws
Oversight
A closed meeting of members of a political party
(Legislatures have leadership structures determined by this)
Caucus
Legislatures who vote by following the wishes of constituents
Delegates
Legislators who exercise individual judgement on issues
Trustees