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66 Cards in this Set

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A member of a bureaucracy
Bureaucrats
A way of organizing work.
Involves hierarchy (people at higher levels are bosses of those below)and division of labor
Bureaucracy
What are the 7 Basic Tenants of Bureaucracies?
1. Specification of jobs w/ detailed rights, obligations, responsibilities, scope of authority
2. System of supervision & subordination
3. Unity of command
4. Extensive use of written docs
5. Training in job requirements
6. Application of consistent & complete rules (company manual)
7. Assign work & hire personnel based on experience
Calls to "clean up" WA and streamline gov'tal bureaucracy.
*Wasn't until Bill Clinton's Prez that any effort was made.
Reinventing Gov't
-business process reengineering
Citizen is a consumer or customer in this idea of gov't
Entrepreneurial Gov't
10 Principles Gov't needs to do in order to increase effectiveness in becoming more entrepreneurial
1. Promote competition into service delivery
2. Empower rather than serve citizens
3. Measure performance
4. Be driven by goals not by rules
5. Meet needs of customers -give choices
6. Prevent problems by antipating b4 they arise
7. Earn $$ rather than spend it
8. Decentralize authority
9. Choose market mechanisms rather than bureaucratic mech
10. Catalyze all sectors
It was the largest gov't reorganization in 50 years (since the US Dept of Defense was created)
-responsible for protecting US territory from terrorist attack and respond to natural disaster
Dept of Homeland Security
Examples of independent Agencies
AMTRAK, CIA, District of Columbia, EPA, FDIC, NASA, etc
Concept of bureaucratic independence which demands separation between bureaucratic & political decision-making.
Bureaucratic neutrality
*public servants owe obligation to citizens not to party that controls gov't
The separation of powers that is based upon the federalist system which the 3 branches of govt are divided.
Checks & Balances
-Leg Branch:makes laws
-Exec Branch:enforces & carries out laws
-Jud Branch: Interprets laws
The application of info and communications technology to enhance the effectiveness of a leg, judiciary, or administration, either to improve efficiency or change relationship between citizen and govt
E-Gov
The 1st to consider and write about the science of public administration and bureaucracy
Woodrow Wilson
Believed that politics deal with "the expression of the will of the state in policies, and administration is concerned with the execution of that will"
Frank Goodnow
Leonard White put forward what 4 assumptions about public admin?
1. No single process of admin
2. Pub admin = management
3. Admin is an art in transformation to a science
4. Admin is central problem of govt
Viewed management fuctions as universal and created the 7 activities acronym POSDCORB
Luther Gulick
What does POSDCORB stand for?
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting & Budgeting
Said that the purpose & structure of orgs should be to make decisions and act upon them.
Said that many "principles" are like proverbs (Provs of Admin)
Herbert Simon
Basic beliefs & assumptions not only about politics & the political system but about appropriate gov't relationships to private, esp economic activity
Political values
The power to make a decision where the choice of whether to make a decision is that of the decision maker
Discretionary authority
Model of administrative activity characterized by concentration of power, centralization of gov'tal policy making, exercise of pwr by experts & professional bureaucrats, sep of politics & admin, & an emphasis on technical or scientific rationality
Administrative efficiency
*alternative to pluralist dem model)
Important in securing legitimacy of public agencies. Constrains extent to which an agency can deviate from their responsibilities
Accountability
Signed into law by Prez George W Bush on Oct 26, 2001, in response to the terrorist attacts against US. Expands authority of law enforcement for purpose of fighting terrorist acts in US & abroad.
USA PATRIOT Act
What does the USA PATRIOT Act mean?
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism
Group of people from whom an org hopes to attract support from.
Constituency
Phrase typically used to describe cozy relationships between the leg, gov't bureaucracies, & special interest groups that result in tight policy-making circles
Iron Triangle
Difficulty of passing party agenda items in a legislature that is close to being evenly divided. Result? No consistent policy direction established
Gridlock
Principles of political accountability applied in an effort to control bureaucratic power.
Bureaucratic accountability
Power of an executive to nullify or "cancel" specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. Usually subject to possibility of leg override
Line-item veto
All the activities & interactions occuring between a central or nat'l gov't and regional gov'ts such as states and cities, with each having some independent authority over its citizens
Intergovernmental Relations
A statute that requires gov't or private parties to carry out specific actions, but does not appropriate any funds for that purpose. Ex: No Child Left Behind Act
Unfunded Mandates
Belief that having separate but equal branches of gov't is the best option
Dual Federalism
Assumption of state & local program authority by the federal gov't
Preemptions
Power of the state to take property for public use without the owner's consent.
Eminent Domain
Characteristic of formal bureaucratic orgs; vertical chain of command in which each unit is subordinate to the one above it and superior to the one below it
Hierarchy
Tendency of those being observed to change their behavior to meet the expectations of researchers; Named after a factory in Illinois (G factory?)
Hawthorne or "halo" effect
Selection of public officials on the basis of political loyalty rather than merit, objective examination, or professional competence
Patronage
Stresses formal, structural arrangements within orgs, and "correct" or "scientific" methods to be followed in order to achieve the highest degree of organizational efficiency (ex: Weber's theory of bureaucracy and Taylor's scientific management approach)
Formal Theory of Organization
Formal theory of org developed by this man; concerned with achieving efficiency in production, rational work procedures, maximum productivity, and profit
Scientific Management by Frederick Taylor
Model of behavior within orgs that assumes that workers need to be motivated by external rewards or sanctions (threats/ punishments)
Theory X
Model of organizational behavior that stresses self-motivation, participation, and intrinsic(internal) job rewards.
Theory Y
Jap management system that stresses deliberative, "bottom- up" collective accountability & decision making, long term planning, & closer relationships among managers & workers
Theory Z
What are Maslwow's Hierarchy of Needs? (5)
1. Self-actualization
2. Self-esteem
3. Social needs
4. Safter & Security
5. Basic Survival Needs
A general approach shared by virtually all modern theories
Systems theory (approach)
Body of theory that emphasizes empirical examination of org behavior, interdisciplinary research employing varied approaches, and attempts to arrive at generalizations applicable to many different kinds of orgs
Modern Organization Theory
Set of org theories stressing that work holds intrinsic interest for the worker and workers seek satisfaction in their work and want to work rather than avoid it (can be motivated through systems of positive incentives)
Organizational Humanism
Theory that orgs behave according to inputs from environment, outputs resulting from org activity, and feedback leading to further inputs
* A change in part of a system effects all other parts
Systems Theory
*Balance
Concept w/n open-systems theory referring to a process of spontaneous self-stabilization among parts of complex organization
Homeostasis
Management approach that encourages organization-wide commitment, teamwork, & better quality of results by providing incentives to increase success of whole enterprise
*Involves employees in decision making
TQM (Total Quality Management)
German sociologist Max Weber made the most prominent model of bureaucracy as an explicit form of social organization. What are the 5 key elements?
1. Division of labor & functional specialization
2. Hierarchy
3. Formal framework of rules & procedures
4. Maintenance of files & other records
5. Professionalization
Developed the theory of "scientific management" that marked the beginning of the managerial tradition in organization theory
Frederick Taylor
Known as the Father of the Hawthorne studies (the first major studies of the human relations approach)
Elton Mayo
An influential scholar who examined the nature of authority w/n orgs, concentrating on leader-follower interaction
Chester Barnard
Mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when members striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
Groupthink
Process in which choices are made to change an existing condition and to select a course of action most appropriate to achieving a desired objective, while minimizing rish & uncertainty to the extent deemed possible
Decision making
Model of decision making that stresses making decisions through limited successive comparisons, in contrast to the rational model
Incrementalism (one piece/step at a time)
Spokesman who argued that decision makers do not have to seek prior goal consensus in order to make sound decisions for the short run
Charles Lindblom
Use of formal mechanisms & statistical techniques, especially computers and simulations, to improve decision making
Decision Analysis
Notion that there are prescribed boundaries, controls, or upper and lower limits on the decision making abilities of individuals within orgs
Bounded Rationality
Those who make any disclosure of legal violations, mismanagement, gross waste of funds, abuse of authority, or dangers to public health or safety, whether the disclosure is made w/n or outside the formal chain of command
Whistle-blowers
Private orgs representing a portion of the general adult population existing in order to pursue particular public policy objectives and seek to influence gov't activity so as to achieve their objectives
Interest Groups
Power of chief executives to convince legislators, administrators, and the general public that their policies should be adopted
Political persuasion or "jawboning" (Talking)
General political & governmental process of formulating relatively concrete goals & directions for gov't activity & proposing an overall framework of programs related to them
Policy Development
General political & governmental process of carrying out programs to fulfill specified policy objectives
Policy Implementation
Feature of administrative agencies that emphasizes gradualism, & political caution when dealing with newly selected political leadership in the executive branch
Bureaucratic Resistance
*public agencies that resist change
Free-form & creative technique for collecting & discussing ideas from all participants w/o criticism or judgement
brainstorming
Important entity in the Executive Office of the Prez that assists the prez in assembling executive-branch budget requests, coordinating programs, developing executive talent, & supervising program management processes in nat'l gov't agencies
OMB (Office of Management & Budget)