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71 Cards in this Set

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Rhinitis/Sinusitis
Recognition Anticipation Etiology
1. Mucopurulent nasal discharge 1. Acute rhinitis:
2. Fibrinopurulent exudate with fungal hyphae a. Canine distemper virus
3. Granulomas in mucosa b. Canine adenovirus 1 and 2
c. Canine parainfluenza virus
d. Reovirus
e. Canine herpesvirus
2. Secondary bacterial rhinitis:
a. Bordetella bronchiseptica
b. Escherichia coli
c. Pasteurella multocida
3. Fungal causes:
a. Mycelial forms:
i. Aspergillus spp.
ii. Penicillium spp.
b. Yeast forms:
i. Cryptococcus neoformans
ii. Rhinosporidium seeberi
Tracheal Agenesis and Tracheal Hypoplasia
Recognition
Tracheal lumen decreased throughout length

Etiology
Hereditary
Tracheal Collapse
Recognition
1. Dorsoventral flattening of trachea
2. Widening of the dorsal tracheal membrane
3. Prolapse ventrally into lumen
4. Usually entire length of trachea
Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis

(Kennel cough)
Recognition
Suppurative tracheobronchitis

Etiology
1. Bordetella bronchiseptica
2. Canine adenovirus 2
3. Canine parainfluenza virus
4. Environment:
a. Poor ventilation
b. Stress
Sterile Thromboemboli
Recognition
Pulmonary infarction

Etiology
1. Dirofilaria immiitis
2. Hyperadrenocorticism
3. Hyperthyroidism
4. Glomerulopathies
5. Hypercoagulable states
Canine Adenovirus
Recognition
1. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia
2. Necrosis of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium
3. Edema
4. Infectious tracheobronchitis complex (kennel cough)

Etiology
Canine Adenovirus Type 2
Canine Herpesvirus
(Fading puppy syndrome)
Recognition
1. Interstitial pneumonia
2. Newborn puppies
3. Hypothermia
4. Anterioventral portions affected

Etiology
Canine Herpesvirus
Canine Distemper
Recognition
1. Catarrhal to mucopurulent nasopharyngitis and conjunctivitis

2. Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
3. Edema

Etiology
1. Morbillivirus
2. Secondary infections:
a. Bordetella bronchiseptica
b. Mycoplasmas

Pathogenesis
1. Enters upper respiratory tract
2. Proliferates in all lymphoid tissues

3. Viremia
4. Inadequate immune response
a. Infects nearly all body tissues
b. Tropism for epithelial cells
c. Forms inclusion bodies
Bacterial Pneumonias
Recognition
1. Lobar pattern
2. Consolidated

Etiology
1. Primary viral injury
2. Secondary bacterial:
a. Pasteurella multocida
b. Streptococcus spp.
c. Escherichia coli
d. Klebsiella pneumoniae
e. Bordetella bronchiseptica
f. Tuberculosis

Pathogenesis
1. Pulmonary defense mechanisms impaired due to primary viral or environmental injury
Opportunistic Mycotic Pneumonias
Recognition
1. Pulmonary pyogranulomas
2. Granulomatous pneumonia
a. Necrosis
b. Vasculitis
c. Fungal hyphae

Etiology
Aspergillus fumigatus

Pathogenesis
Inhalation
Systemic Mycotic Pneumonia
Recognition
1. Granulomatous pneumonia
a. Multiple firm nodules
2. Generalized lymphandenopathy
3. Cutaneous lesions

Etiology
1. Blastomyces dermatitidis
2. Histoplasma capsulatum
3. Coccidioides immitis
4. Cryptococcus neoformans

Pathogenesis
1. Fungus in soils
2. Inhalation of spores
3. Disseminated hematogenously to other organs
Toxoplasmosis
Recognition
1. Necrosis
2. Severe, multifocal necrotizing interstitial pneumonia

a. Proliferation of Type II pneumocytes
b. Infiltrates of macrophages and neutrophils

3. Fluid-filled lungs
4. White, discrete foci

Etiology
Toxoplasma gondii

Pathogenesis
Triggered by immune suppression
Uremic Pneumonopathy
Recognition
1. Pulmonary alveolar edema
2. Calcification of vascular smooth muscle
3. Calcification of alveolar walls
a. Prevents collapse of lung
4. Diffusely distended
5. Pink or red
6. Rough pleural surface with rib imprints
7. Gritty texture

Pathogenesis
1. Renal disease
2. Results in mineral (Ca) imbalances
Pleural Calcification
(Frosting)
Recognition
1. Linear white streaks in parietal pleura
a. Over intercostal muscles of cranial part of thoracic cavity

b. Not functionally significant

Etiology
Chronic Uremia
Feline viral rhinotracheitis
Recognition
1. Oculonasal discharges
2. Severe rhinitis
3. Conjunctivitis

Anticipation
Secondary bacterial rhinitis/sinusitis pneumonia

Etilogy
Feline herpesvirus (FHV-1)
Feline calcivirus
Recognition
1. Mild to severe rhinitis
2. Mucopurulent conjunctivitis

Anticipation
Secondary bacterial rhinitis/sinusitis pneumonia
Feline Chlamydiosis
Recognition
Serous or mucopurulent rhinitis

Etiology
Chamydia psittaci (felis)
Mild Feline Rhinitis
Recognition
Mild Rhinitis

Etiology
Mycoplasma felis
Mycotic Rhinitis
Recognition
1. Nasal granulomas
2. Mucopurulent exudate

Etiology
Cryptococcus neoformans
Laryngeal Edema
Recognition
1. Laryngeal mucosa is thickened and swollen

2. Protrudes dorsally into epiglottis
3. Gelatinous appearance

Etiology
Systemic Anaphylaxis
Bacterial Pneumonias
Recognition
1. Pulmonary granulomas
2. Cutaneous granulomas

Etiology
1. Pasteurella multocida
2. Mycoplasmas
3. Mycobacterium bovis
4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
5. Mycobacterium avium
Mycotic Pneumonias
Recognition
1. Systemic mycosis
2. Multifocal granulomatous pneumonia

Etiology
Cryptococcus neoformans
Parasitic Pneumonicas
Recognition
1. Multifocal, amber, subpleural nodules
a. Up to 1 cm in diameter
2. Granulomatous nodules
a. Contain eggs and larvae
b. Turbid, viscous exudate

Etiology
1. Aehurostrongylus abstrusus
2. Toxoplasma gondii
3. Paragonimus kellicotti
4. Dirofilaria immitis
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
(Red Nose)
Recognition
1. Hyperemia
2. Focal necrosis of tracheal and bronchial mucosa

Etiology
Bovine herpesvirus-1
Ovine/caprine Rhinitis/sinusitis
Recognition
1. First stage larvae in nostrils
2. Septal deviation

Etiology
Oestrus ovis

Pathogenesis
1. Flies lay eggs in nostrils
2. First-stage larvae in nostrils
3. Larvae mature into large bots
Enzootic Ethmoidal Tumors
Recognition
1. Nasal carcinoma of ethmoidal conchae
2. Invasive (but not metastatic)

Etiology
Retroviruses
Tracheal Collapse
Recognition
1. Dorsoventral flattening of trachea
2. Widening of the dorsal tracheal membrane

3. Prolapse ventrally into lumen
4. Usually entire length of trachea
Laryngeal Edema
Recognition
1. Laryngeal mucosa is thickened and swollen

2. Protrudes dorsally into epiglottis
3. Gelatinous appearance

Etiology
Acute interstitial pneumonia
Necrotic Laryngitis
(Calf diphtheria, laryngeal necrobacillosis)
Recogitioin
1. Lesions of tongue, gingiva, cheeks, palate, and pharynx

2. Well-demarcated, dry, yellow-gray, thick-crusted, necrotic areas

3. Deep ulceration can develop
4. Healing by granulation tissue formation

Etiology
1. Fusobacterium necrophorum
2. Nutritional deficiencies
3. Unsanitary conditions
4. Concurrent infection

Pathogenesis
1. Initial mucosal damage
2. Traumatic injury
3. Exotoxins and endotoxins
Interstitial Emphysema
Recognition
1. Thick interlobular septa
2. Lack of collateral ventilation
Enzootic Pneumonia
(Calf pneumonia; viral pneumonia)
Recognition
1. Young, overcrowded calves
2. Primary phase (viral)
a. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia:
i. Necrotizing bronchiolitis
ii. Necrosis of type I pneumocytes
iii. Hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes
iv. Mild interstitial and alveolar edema
3. Secondary phase (bacterial):
a. Suppurative bronchopneumonia
i. Creamy-mucoid exudate in airways
ii. Pulmonary abscesses
iii. Bronchiectasis

Etiology
1. Viral:
a. PI-3 virus
b. BRSV
c. Adenoviruses
d. BHV-1
e. Reoviruses
f. Rhinoviruses
2. Mycoplasmas
3. Bacterial:
a. Pasteurella multocida
b. Arcanobacterium pyogenes
c. Hemophilus somnus
d. Escherichia coli

Pathogenesis
1. Acute respiratory infection resulting in impairment of pulmonary defense mechanisms



2. Secondary agents cause suppurative bronchopneumonia


3. Poor ventilation
4. High humidity
Pneumonic Pasteurellosis
(Shipping fever)
Recognition
1. Acute respiratory disease
2. Several days-weeks post-shipping
3. Severe fibrinous bronchopneumonia
a. Fibrinous pleuritis
b. Pleural effusion
c. Cranioventral distribution
d. Interlobular septa distended
i. Yellow, gelatinous edema
ii. Fibrin
e. Necrotic lobules
i. Coagulation necrosis
ii. Interlobular interstitial edema
iii. Congestion

Etiology
1. Primary viral:
a. IBR
b. PI3
c. BRSV
2. Secondary bacterial:
a. Mannheimia hemolytica

Pathogenesis
1. Initial stressors impair defense mechanisms

2. Primary viral infection
3. Secondary bacterial infection
a. Leukotoxin binds to and kills macrophages and neutrophils


b. Tissue and endothelial cell injury
Respiratory Hemophilosis
Recognitiong
1. Suppurative and fibrinous bronchopneumonia

2. Indistinguishable from pneumonic pasteurellosis


Etiolgoy
Haemophilus somnus

Pathogenesis
1. Pre-disposing factors include:
a. Stress
b. Primary viral infection
Tuberculosis
Recognition
1. Granulomatous pneumonia
2. Few or many caseated granulomas
3. Tubercles enlarge and confluent
4. Mononuclear cells (granulomatous)
a. Epitheliod and Langerhan's giant cells

b. Lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages


Etiology
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Viral Pneumonia
Recognition
1. Rubbery, firm lungs
2. Atelectasis/consolidation
3. Red

Etiology
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema and Emphysema (ABPE)

(Fog fever)
Recognition
1. Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
2. Severe alveolar and interstitial edema
3. Interlobular emphysema
4. Enlarged, pale, rubbery

Etiology
1. L-tryptophan
2. 4-ipomcanol
3. Purple mint
4. Rapeseed and kale

Pathogenesis
1. L-tryptophan present in lush, green pastures

2. Metabolized in rumen to 3-methylindole

3. Absorbed into bloodstream
4. Carried to lungs
5. Mixed function oxidases:
a. Nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells (Clara cells)

b. Type II pneumocytes
6. 3-methylindole metabolized to pneumotoxic compound
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis
(Hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
Recognition
1. Adult dairy cows in winter
2. Exudate
3. Hyaline membranes

Etiology
1. Thermophilic actinomycetes
2. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula

Pathogenesis
1. Type III HST reaction to inhaled organic antigens

2. Local deposition of ag-ab complexes
Verminous pneumonia
(Verminous bronchitis)
Recognition
1. Severe bronchial irritation
2. Bronchitis
3. Pulmonary edema
4. Lobular atelectasis
a. Large, dark or grey
b. Depressed
c. Wedge-shaped
5. Interstitial emphysema
6. Caudodorsal aspect
7. On cut surface:
a. Edematous foam and mucus
b. Nematodes in bronchi

Etiology
1. Dictyocaulus viviparous
a. Cattle
2. Dictyocaulus filaria
a. Sheep
Maedi (Maedi-Visna)
Recognition
1. Severe insterstitial pneumonia
2. Lungs fail to collapse
3. Notable rib imprints
4. Pale, mottled
5. Heavy (2-3x normal weight)
6. Enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes

Etiology
Non-oncogenic retrovirus

Pathogenesis
1. Transmission occurs largely through ingestion of infected colostrum


2. Close contact between infected and susceptible sheep

3. Infected monocytes and macrophages
Ovine Pulmonary Carcinoma
Recognition
1. Lungs enlarged, wet, heavy
2. Firm, grey, variably-sized nodules
3. Nodules become confluent in both lungs

Anticipation
1. Bronchopneumonia
2. Abscesses
3. Fibrous pleural adhesions

4. Metastases
a. Tracheobronchial or mediastinal lymph nodes


b. Pleura
c. Muscle
d. Liver
e. Kidneys
Inclusion Body Rhinitis
Recognition
1. Young pigs
2. High morbidity
3. Low mortality

Anticipation
1. Necrosis of liver
2. Necrosis of lungs
3. Necrosis of adrenal glands

4. Necrosis of brain

Etiology
Porcine cytomegalovirus
Atrophic Rhinitis
Recognition
1. Inflammation and atrophy of nasal turbinates

2. Facial deformity:
a. Deviation of nasal septum/bones
b. Wrinkled nose

Etiolgoy
1. B. bronchiseptica
2. P. multocida

Pathogenesis
1. B. bronchiseptica promotes colonization by P. multocida

2. P. multocida has potent cytotoxins that inhibit osteoblast activity and promote osteoclastic reabsorption of nasal bones
Hypoplastic Epiglottis
Recognition
1. Respiratory noise
2. Undersized epiglottis

Anticipation
Entrapment below arytenoepiglottic fold


Etiology
Hereditary
Laryngeal Edema
Recognition
1. Laryngeal mucosa is thickened and swollen

2. Protrudes dorsally into epiglottis
3. Gelatinous appearance

Etiology
Edema disease
Swine Influenza
Recognition
1. Catarrhal to mucopurulent inflammation
a. Nasal passages to bronchioles
2. Plug small airways
a. Lobular or multilobular atelectasis
b. Cranioventral regions of lungs

Etiology
1. Type A influenza virus
2. Secondary bacterial or mycoplasmal infection

Pathogenesis
1. Aerosols or oral route
a. Lungworms or
b. Common earthworm
2. Infects epithelial cells
a. Spread throughout respiratory tract
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
Recognition
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

Etiology
PRRS virus

Pathogenesis
1. Mucosal portal of entry
2. Virus replication in local macrophages

3. Transient viremia
4. Dissemination to phagocytic cells of lungs

5. Induces apoptotic cell death
1. Mucosal portal of entry
2. Virus replication in local macrophages

3. Transient viremia
4. Dissemination to phagocytic cells of lungs

5. Induces apoptotic cell death
Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS)
Recognition
1. Mild interstitial pneumonia
2. Failure of lungs to collapse

Etiology
Porcine circovirus
a. Alone or
b. In combo with porcine parvovirus

Pathogenesis
1. Mucosal portal of entry
2. Virus replication in local macrophages

3. Transient viremia
4. Dissemination to phagocytic cells of lungs

5. Induces apoptotic cell death
Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia
(Mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine)
Recognition
1. Bronchointerstitial pnumonia (acutely)
2. Progresses to suppurative bronchopnumonia

3. 50% or more of cranioventral portions of lungs affected

4. Dark red in early stages
5. Homogeneous pale grey in chronic stages

6. Exudate easily expressed from airways
7. Rubbery to firm
8. NOT FIBRINOUS

Etiology
Mycoplasma hyopnumoniae

Path1. Aerogenous entry
2. Adheres to cilia of bronchi
3. Colonizes in ciliated epithelial cells

a. Trachea and bronchi
b. Cranioventral regions
4. Changes chemical composition of mucus

5. Predisposes lung to secondary bacterial infection

6. Influx of neutrophils into tracheobronchial mucosa

7. Extensive loss of cilia
8. Reduces phagocytic activity of neutrophils

9. Intense hyperplasia of lymphocytes in BALT

10. Mononuclear cells into bronchoalveolar interstitium

ogenesis
Porcine Pasteurellosis
Recognition
1. Bronchointerstitial pnumonia (acutely)
2. Progresses to suppurative bronchopnumonia

3. 50% or more of cranioventral portions of lungs affected

4. Dark red in early stages
5. Homogeneous pale grey in chronic stages

6. Exudate easily expressed from airways
7. Rubbery to firm
8. NOT FIBRINOUS

Etiology
Pasteurella multocida
Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae (APP)
Recognition
1. Fibrinohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia
2. Extensive pleuritis
3. Severe consolidation of lung lobes
4. Caudodorsal distribution
5. Coagulative necrosis

Etiology
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Pathogenesis
1. Initial stressors impair defense mechanisms

2. Primary viral infection
3. Secondary bacterial infection
a. Leukotoxin binds to and kills macrophages and neutrophils


b. Tissue and endothelial cell injury
Verminous pneumonia
Recognition
1. Severe bronchial irritation
2. Bronchitis
3. Pulmonary edema
4. Lobular atelectasis
a. Large, dark or grey
b. Depressed
c. Wedge-shaped
5. Interstitial emphysema
6. Caudodorsal aspect
7. On cut surface:
a. Edematous foam and mucus
b. Nematodes in bronchi

Etiology
1. Metastrongylus apri
2. Ascaris suum
Haemophilus pneumonia
Recognition
1. Suppurative bronchopneumonia
2. Polyserositis
3. Polyarthritis

Etiology
Haemophilus parasuis/suis
Streptococcal pneumonia
Recognition
Suppurative bronchopneumonia

Etiology
Streptococcus suis Type II
Tuberculosis
Recognition
Granulomatous Pneumonia
Epistaxis
(Nosebleed)
Recognition
Nosebleed

Etiology
1. Trauma
2. Guttural pouch mycosis
3. Tumors

Pathogenesis
1. Erosion of submucosal vessels by inflammation
Ethmoidal Hematomas
Recognition
Older Horses
Equine Rhinitis/Sinusitis
Recognition
1. May extend into adjacent bone
2. Mucocele
3. Empyema
4. Strangles:
a. Mucopurulent exudate
5. Glanders:
a. Pyogranulomatous nodules
b. Mucopurulent exudate

Etiology
1. Viral:
a. Viral rhinopneumonitis
b. Influenza
c. Rhinovirus
d. Adenovirus
e. Parainfluenza virus
2. Bacterial:
a. Streptococcus equi
i. Strangles
b. Pseudomonas mallei
ii. Glanders
Nasal cysts
Recognition
1. Mimic neoplasms or infections
2. Dentigerous cysts
Hypoplastic Epiglottis
Recognition
1. Respiratory noise
2. Undersized epiglottis

Anticipation
Entrapment below arytenoepiglottic fold

Etiology
Hereditary
Subepiglottic and Pharyngeal Cysts
Anticipation
1. Airway obstruction
2. Dysphagia
3. Bronchoaspiration
Tracheal Collapse
Recognition
1. Dorsoventral flattening of trachea
2. Widening of the dorsal tracheal membrane

3. Prolapse ventrally into lumen
4. Usually entire length of trachea
Laryngeal Edema
Recognition
1. Laryngeal mucosa is thickened and swollen

2. Protrudes dorsally into epiglottis
3. Gelatinous appearance

Etiology
Purpura hemorrhagica
Pharyngeal Lymphoid Hyperplasia
Recognition
1. Partial upper airway obstruction
2. 2-3 year-old racehorses
3. Hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues

Etiology
1. Chronic bacterial infection
2. Environmental factors
3. Excessive antigenic stimulation

4. Lymphoid hyperplasia
Guttural Pouch Mycosis
Recognition
1. Inflammation of guttural pouch
a. Usually unilateral
2. Guttural pouch mucosa
3. Diphtheric, fibrinonecrotic exudate

Anticipation
1. CN VI, IX, X, XI, and XII
2. Internal carotid artery
3. Atlantooccipital joint
4. Cerebral infarcts

Etiology
1. Aspergillus fumigatus
2. Aspergillus spp.

Pathogenesis
1. Proximity to internal carotid artery

2. Fungi may be angioinvasive
3. Dysphagia
4. Horner's syndrome
Guttural Pouch Empyema
Recognition
1. Targets lymphoid tissues
2. Sequela to suppurative inflammation of nasal cavities

Etiology
Streptococcus equi
Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Recognition
1. Epistaxis
2. Follows exercise

Pathogenesis
1. Alveolar hypoxia
2. Bronchiolitis
3. Laryngeal paralysis
4. High pulm pressures during exercise

5. Pre-existing pulm injury
Equine Influenza
Recognition
1. Diffuse distribution
2. Hyperemia
3. Firm
4. "Jello-like"

Anticipation
1. Airway hyperresponsiveness

2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Etiology
Viral infection
Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis
Recognition
1. Young horses:
a. Weanlings
b. 4-8 months of age
2. Adult horses
3. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia
4. Diffuse distribution
5. Hyperemia
6. Firm
7. "Jello-like"

Etiology
Equine herpesvirus
Rhodococcus Pneumonia
Recognition
1. Two forms:
a. Ulcerative enterocolitis
b. Fatal bronchopneumonia
2. Cranioventral distribution
3. Scattered foci of granulomas
4. Hyperemia

Pathogenesis
1. Inhalation of infected dust or aerosols

2. Rapid phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages

3. Defective phagolysosome fusion

4. Premature lysosomal degranulation

5. Bacteria survive and multiply
6. Destruction of macrophage
Parascaris equorum
Recognition
1. Dorsal-diaphragmatic distribution
2. Red, wet, heavy lungs

Etiology
Parascaris equorum
Dictyocaulus arnfeldi
Recognition
1. Coughing
2. Pasturization with donkeys
3. Cystic pockets on dorsal-diaphragmatic portion of lungs

Etiology
Dictyocaulus arnfeldi