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19 Cards in this Set

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What are features of a successful peer tutoring program?
*Tutors must know exactly what they need to do.
*Lesson Format:
-Select skill for tutoring lesson
-Decide the outcome desired for the student
-Perform a task analysis
-Carefully sequence the task
-State the task in terms of learner performance so the behavior can be measured and evaluated.
-Modify teaching tasks according to the skill of the tutor.
Bloom's Taxonomy

-creating a unique, original product that may be in verbal form or may be in a physical object
-combination of ideas to form a new whole
-what would you predict from...?
-what ideas can you add to...?
-how would you create/ design a new...?
-what might happen if you combined...?
-what solutions would you suggest for...?

Synthesis requires doing something new and different with information.
Bloom's Taxonomy

-making value decisions about issues
-resolving controversies or differences of opinion
-development of opinions, judgments, or decisions
-do you agree that...?
-what do you think about...?
-place the following in order of priority...?
-how would you decide about...?
-what criteria would you use to assess...?

Evaluation requires judging information using some criteria or standard.
IEP and its parts
Individualized Education Program

I. Present levels of Performance
1.) Academic achievement
2.) Social development
3.) Physical development
4.) Management Needs

II. Long term adult outcomes

III. Measureable annual goals and short term instructional objectives/ benchmarks (3)

IV. Special Education programs and Related Services/ Program Modifications
1.) Assistive Technology devices/ services
2.) Testing Modifications

V. Participation in General Education

VI. Participating Agencies for students who require Transition Services

VII. Coordinated set of activities leading to long term adult outcomes

VIII. Graduation Information for secondary students

IX. Summary of selected Recommendations

X. Reporting progress to parents
10 parts
What are the benefits of peer tutoring?
Tutors gain:
-Better understanding of subject matter
-Positive attitude towards subject they tutor
Reasons for achievement gains by tutor:
-acquire new information
-review and relearn information
-more concerned about own school work
-general attitude change
Non-cognitive gains:
-social validation
-self-esteem improvement
1.) Tutors Gain...
2.) Reasons for achievement gain...
3.) Non-cognitive gains...
Who should tutor?
-Older students may bemore effective tutors than younger tutors.
-Personal traits of tutors are important.
-Cross-sex and cross-race tutors do not affect achievement gains.
Should tutors be trained?
-It is ESSENTIAL that tutors are trained.
-Tutors need to be trained to:
-give clear directions
-encourage and praise learners for effort
-confirm correct answers
-correct errors in a non-punitive fashion
-avoid over prompting
-gathering + replacing instructional material
-measuring + recording student performance
-Tutor training should not end when tutoring starts
How often and how long should tutoring lessons take place?
-Daily tutoring lessons of approximately 30 minutes in length may be most effective.
When should peer tutoring be used?
-Well sequesnced "lower level" skills
-Peer tutoring programs should be based on the child's classroom curriculum
-Teach to mastery.
Why use peer tutoring? Is it effective?
-Increased time on task.
-Peer tutoring may be more effective than teacher-led small group instruction alone.
-Cost effective
Curriculum-based Measurement
A generic way of measuring student performance. It is a simple set of precedures for repeated measurement of student growth. It provides information on how the student's behavior changes on a task of constant difficulty. Increase in the behavior being measured on equivalent forms of the task should represent growth.
-uses classroom materials for assessment
-measures performance using fluency
-compares a student's score with suggested instructional + mastery standards or criteria
-It is a very useful tool to help demosrtate growth or lack of growth by a student in a very specific area
gaining meaning from text
Reciprocal Teaching
Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of 4 strategies:
2.)Question Generating
The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of the teacher in leading this dialogue
4 strategy
Purpose of reciprocal teaching
The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort, between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text.
Task Analysis
A task analysis is when one breaks down a task or objective being taught into simple components

Reasons to perform:
-To help a teacher prepare for a lesson
-To determine why a student has not been making adequate progress
To perform:
-Identify terminal behavior (goal behavior)
-List necessary prerequisite skills
-List the component skills in order (steps)
-Reasons to perform
-To perform
Blooms Taxonomy

-recalling identification
-recalling information

Knowledge requires learning information
Bloom's Taxonomy

-translating from one medium to another
-describing in one's own words
-organization and selection of facts and ideas

Comprehension requires understanding/ interpreting information
Bloom's Taxonomy

-problem solving
-appying information to produce some result
-use of facts, rules and principles
-how is... an example of ...?
-how is... related to...?
-why is... significant?

Application requires using information
Bloom's Taxonomy

-subdividing something to show how it is put together
-finding the underlying structure of a communication
-identifying motives
-separation of a whole into its parts
-what are the parts/features of...?
-classify... according to...
-outline/ diagram...
-how does... compare/contrast with...?
-what evidence can you list for...?

Analysis requires examining specific parts of information to "see" through the underlying ideas.