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246 Cards in this Set

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Special Education?
Purposeful intervention efforts: preventive
remedial
compensatory
Individually planned, specialized, intensive, goal oriented instruction.
LRE
Students with disabilities must be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate and they should be removed to seperate classes
or schools only when the nature of the severity of their disabilities is such that they cannot receive appropriate education in a general ed classroom.
Prefererral Intervention
Screening tests indicate possible disability or teacher/parent reports concerns with child's learning, behavior, or development.
Parent's are notified
Intervention team works with classroom teacher to plan modifications in curriculum and instruction in an attempt to solve problem.
Nondiscriminatory Multifactored Evaluation
Parents consent for testing and evaluation must be pbtained. Evaluation must not discriminate on asis of race, culture, language or gender. Considers all areas related to the suspected disability. Formal tests, direct observations, parental input.
Identification
A team of qualifiedn professionals and the parents reviews eavaluationdata and all relevant information to determine if the child has a disability. Parents participate in interpretation of assessmen ts results and the eligibility decision.
Program Planning (IEP)
IEP team meets within 30 days of eligibilty determination.
Parents participate
students participate
Includes: Measureable goals
Benchmarks
short term obj
A statement of services
A statement on the extent to which the student participates in state-and district wide testing.
A positive behavior intervention plan.
Transition needs and services.
Placement in LRE
pacement is determined by the IEP team. IDEA presupposes the general ed. classroom as the starting point. IEP must contain an explanation of the extent
Parents participate in and must consent to placement decision.
Implement Special Education
The IEP is implemented in the LRE. The child participates in the general curriculum and extracurricular activities of the school. The child participates in state-wide and district wide assessments.
REVIEW AND EVALUATION
The school must provide parents with information on the child's progress toward IEP goals and objectives at least as often as the school reports on progress on students without disabilities. • The IEP team evaluates "where by when" benchmarks and objectives and makes modifications in instructional program, placement, and related and supplementary services as needed. • The IEP must be formally reviewed at least annually. • The IEP team may decide that the disability is no longer present and that special education services are no longer needed.
IFSP
Reduce the effects of disabilities or prevent the occurrence of learning and developmental problems later in life for children presumed to be at risk for such problems.
3 categories of eligibility stated in the IDEA to infants and toddlers
Because of development delays one or more of the areas of: 1.cognitive development,
2.physical development,
3.social or emotional development or adaptive development.
Disadvantages of Labeling
• may stigmatize the child and lead peers to reject or ridicule the labeled child.

• may negatively affect the child's self-esteem.

• may cause others to hold low expectations for and to differentially treat a child on the basis of the label, which may result in a self fullfilling prophecy.
• describe a child's performance deficit often mistakenly acquire the role of explanatory constructs

•suggest that learning problems are primarily the result of something wrong within the child, thereby reducing the systematic examination of and accountability for instructional variables as the cause of performance deficits.
Possible Benefits of Labeling
• recognizes meaningful differences in learning or behavior and is a first and necessary step in responding responsibly to those differences.

• may lead to a protective response in which children are more accepting of the atypical behavior of a peer with disabilities than they would be if that same behavior were emitted by a child without disabilities

• helps professionals communicate with one another and classify and evaluate research findings. • Funding and resources for research and other programs are often based on specific categories of exceptionality.

•enable disability-specific advocacy groups (e.g., parents of children with autism) to promote specific programs and to spur legislative action.

• helps make exceptional children's special needs more visible to policy- makers and the public
the six major principles of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
• Zero reject. Schools must educate all children with disabilities. This principle applies regardless of the nature or severity of the disability.

• Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation. Schools must use nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine whether a child has a disability and, if so, whether special education is needed.
• Free, appropriate public education. All children with disabilities shall receive a free, appropriate public education at public expense. An individualized education program (IEP) must be developed and implemented for each student with a disability
• Least restrictive environment. Students with disabilities must be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate, and they should be removed to separate classes or schools only when the nature or severity of their disabilities is such that they cannot receive an appropriate education in a general education classroom.

• Due process safeguards. Schools must provide due process safeguards to protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents.


• Parent and students participation and shared decision-making. Schools must collaborate with
parents and with students with disabilities in the design and implementation of special education
services.
3 factors that may account for disproportionate placement of culturally diverse students in special education.
Incongruence in interactions between teachers and culturally diverse students and families

Inaccuracy of the assessment and referral process for culturally diverse students in special education

Ineffective curriculum and instructional practices for culturally diverse students
List and describe principles of effective communication.
Accepting what is being said
Listening
Questioning appropriately
Encouraging
Staying focused
types of service delivery programs for young children,
Hospital Based
Home Based Programs
Center Based Programs
Combined Home Center Programs
three factors that are important for teachers to understand regarding needs of students with disabilities
Severity of the impairment suggests the extent of involvement of a condition. For students with sensory impairments, severity relates closely to the students ability to communicate and to their experiential background. Students with more severe sensory impairments are likely to use different methods of communication and assistive techniques for mobility.
2. Visibility of a disability brings unwanted attention. Unfortunately, this attention focuses on the perceived negative features of an individual. For many students, this attention causes them to feel devalued.

3. The age at which students acquire a disability has a profound effect on certain skills and abilities (e.g., language acquisition or concept development). Age also affects how students handle their condition and how educational personnel should address the condition.
Deafness
is defined as ----, which is so severe, that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, and that adversely affects educational performance"
Hard of hearing
is defined as a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance that is not included under the definition of "deaf"
typical characteristics of students with hearing impairments
The student shows a lack of attention.
The student turns or cocks his or her head an unusual amount of the time.
The student has little difficulty following written directions but difficulty following oral directions.
The student exhibits behaviors such as shyness, acting out, stubbornness, or is withdrawn. The student may have difficulty in making friends and may be less socially mature.
The student is reluctant to participate in oral activities.
The student looks to the class for clues for instructions.
The student's best achievement is in small groups.
The student exhibits a speech defect.
There is a difference between the student's expected and actual achievement.
Medical indications such as frequent earaches, sore throats, or fluid from the ears may indicate a hearing loss.
Implications for the teacher of students with hearing impairments
Accept the student as a person, that is, do not patronize, do not pamper.
Encourage students to request clarification and to ask questions. Repeat the comments of other students who speak. Paraphrase or summarize discussions at the end of a class session.
Build on the studentís strengths.
Use visual aids or visually oriented materials as much as possible.
Speak clearly, use your natural tone, and be sure that your face can be easily seen. Use facial expressions and gestures. Maintain eye contact.
Make appropriate seating arrangements for students. Seat students so they can take advantage of their residual hearing. Seat students so they can see their interpreter. Let students use swivel chairs.
Learn American Sign Language.
Never shout.
Visual impairment
is measured as a function of what a normal person sees at 200 feet, (legally blind is defined as 20/200).
Common types of visual impairments involve problems in refraction and are typically corrected through the use of corrective glasses or lenses
Myopia (nearsightedness) - Cannot see distant objects clearly - concave glasses
2. Hyperopia (farsightedness) - Cannot see objects up-close, difficulty in refocusing from distant to near objects - convex glasses

3. Astigmatism (blurred vision) - Eye strain and blurred vision - hard contact lenses to make the cornea spherical

4. Strabismus ("lazy eye") - double vision, dimness of vision, nausea and fatigue - specific medical treatment before the age of 5 or 6
Implications for the teacher
1. Do not grab student in an attempt to assist; instead let the person place his or her hand through your arm or place it lightly on your shoulder.
2. When guiding a person physically and you come to an obstruction, such as a step or tree limb, simply step down or duck your body. Your body language indicates what is ahead.

3. When entering a new room, explain the layout of the room. Be sure that furniture, suitcases, books, and other objects are not positioned in the center of the floor space or the traffic pattern.

4. Assign a friend to a student with impaired vision or blindness until he or she becomes oriented to the physical design of the classroom.

5. In the school cafeteria, describe the food being served and where the food is being placed on the plate.

6. Let students with impaired vision or blindness speak for themselves. They are not speechless or helpless. Treat the student as you would anyone else. Do not be overly concerned with using words such as see or look. Persons with impaired vision or blindness know their strengths and limitations. When you are unsure of yourself in trying to help these students, ask them for advice.
Arranging the classroom
Use more space for students who use Braille
Use extra long tables
Provide student with long desk and a bookcase - place in L-shape
Be flexible and feel free to change the student's seating arrangement
Provide space to store materials
Provide proper lighting and avoid glare
When unsure, ask.
PHYSICAL DISABILITIES
Persons with _______ _____make up a very heterogeneous group. Some of the disabilities included in this broad category are cerebral palsy, limb deficiencies, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, and spinal cord injuries.
Characteristics of students with physical disabilities
Tire more quickly than others in the class
Have excessive absences due to medical appointments
Experience difficulty in performing gross motor tasks
Are unable to or have difficulty completing manipulative activities, such as holding a pencil, cutting, drawing, and stringing beads.
Have difficulty distinguishing differences in size, depth, and spatial relationships (common among children with cerebral palsy)
Are socially delayed due to a lack of interaction with other children.
Implications for the teacher
. Be aware of all associated disabilities of the student.
2. Allow adequate time for the student to travel from room to room and to get positioned in the classroom.

3. Be aware of the procedures by which to manage a seizure.

4. Preplan all emergency situations.

5. Work closely with all therapists involved in the education of the student.

6. Stabilize all structures such as stairs when sitting, wheelchairs, and so on.

7. Eliminate any barriers that the school may have.

8. Remember that the student may exhibit low vitality and have poor stamina.
health impairment
as defined in the Federal Register (1977), means having limited strength, vitality or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems such as heart condition, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephrites, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, or diabetes which adversely affect a child's educational performances (p. 42478). This group of students may have special needs that require specially designed equipment or facilities and close monitoring by school staff.
Seizures
1. Generalized Tonic-Clonic (severe), 2. Absence (less dramatic and lasts for a few seconds, and 3. Complex Partial Seizure (inappropriate or purposeless behaviors that may last a few minutes and the student is unaware of the behavior). Listed below are suggestions to help teachers understand epilepsy and manage a seizure (Epilepsy Foundation of America, 1992).
Traumatic Brain Injury
an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment
Autism
is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3. This category was also added in the IDEA of 1990.
Characteristics of students with autism
. Difficulty relating to people, objects, and events
2. Repetitive movements such as rocking, spinning, finger snapping, or hand flapping

3. Insistence on sameness in the environment and in following routines and marked distress over changes in trivial aspects of either

4. Avoidance of eye contact

5. Impaired communication skills, verbal and nonverbal

6. Unconventional use of toys and objects

7. Impairment of social interaction and abnormal social play

8. Restricted range of interests and preoccupation with one narrow interest

9. Cognitive problems in attention, organization, and sequencing
Implications for teachers
1. Structure the learning environment so that it is predictable and consistent. This includes physical structure as well as routines, schedules, and teacher behavior.
2. Design instructional programs to provide ways to help students learn to communicate. Remember there are many ways to communicate.

3. Since students with autism have difficulty managing their own behavior without structure, develop individual and group behavior plans that stress positive behavior management and set forth clear instructions, rules, and consequences.

4. Work closely with the family to ensure consistency between school and home and other settings in approaches, methods of interaction, and response to students.
Attention Deficit Disorder
the inability to attend to a task) and hyperactivity (high rates of purposeless movement) are frequently cited as characteristics of children with learning disabilities.
Common features of ADD are:
The student may exhibit developmentally inappropriate degrees of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.
Onset of problems is noticed as early as age 4.
Boys will be three times as likely as girls to be diagnosed.
Some will be hyperactive, some will not.
Hyperactivity appears to diminish by adolescence; yet the attention and impulse problems tend to persist.
It is not uncommon to find a family member of a child with ADD who also exhibits the same characteristics when younger
Implications for teachers
Place the student away from visually or auditorially distracting situations.
2. Provide structure for instruction as well as for transitioning from on activity to the next.

3. When providing the class information or directions for tasks, use a multi-modality approach.

4. Seatwork or individual tasks should be carefully monitored. Use checklists and peer tutors. Make sure the assignments result in success and not failure.

5. When giving homework assignments, be sure that the student can complete the amount given.

6. Alternate class activities so that a long period of sitting will not be required.

7. Note taking may prove difficult. Provide carbon copies, allow students to tape record. Provide a note-taking partner.

8. Allow students to tape record answers to tests instead of writing them. Be sure that tests are short. Limit the number of distracters on multiple-choice items.

9. These students are overly sensitive to criticism. Therefore, frequent praise is necessary.
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
Tests language, expressive communication and auditory processing and comprehension in individuals from preschool to late adult ages.
Peabody Developmental Motor Scale
Tests gross and fine motor skills in individuals from birth to 8 years of age.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Measures general intelligence, basic cognitive processing and memory retention in individuals from 2 to 23 years of age.
Battelle Developmental Inventory
Measures cognitive, motor, language, self help and social skills in individuals from preschool to primary grade levels.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale
Assess children from early preschool to 18 years of age on social abilities in areas of communication, daily living, motor and socialization skills.
Child Behavior Check List
A checklist for parents and teachers to assess children from early preschool to young adulthood with behaviors associated with learning disabilities.
Ability
A characteristic that is indicative of competence in a field.
Ability Testing
Use of standardized tests to evaluate an individual’s performance in a specific area (i.e., cognitive, psychomotor, or physical functioning
Achievement tests
Standardized tests that measure knowledge and skills in academic subject areas (i.e., math, spelling, and reading).
Accommodations.
Describe changes in format, response, setting, timing, or scheduling that do not alter in any significant way what the test measures or the comparability of scores.
Age Equivalent
The chronological age in a population for which a score is the median (middle) score. If children who are 10 years and 6 months old have a median score of 17 on a test, the score 17 has an age equivalent of 10-6.
Alternate Forms
Two or more versions of a test that are considered interchangeable, in that they measure the same constructs in the same ways, are intended for the same purposes, and are administered using the same directions.
Aptitude tests
Tests that measure an individual’s collective knowledge; often used to predict learning potential. See also ability test
Battery.
A group or series of tests or subtests administered; the most common are achievement tests that include subtests in different areas
Benchmark.
Levels of academic performance used as checkpoints to monitor progress toward performance goals and/or academic standards.
Composite score
The practice of combining two or more subtest scores to create an average or _______ score. For example, a reading performance score may be an average of vocabulary and reading comprehension subtest scores
Content Standards
Expectations about what the child should know and be able to do in different subjects and grade levels; defines expected student skills and knowledge and what schools should teach.
Criteria
Guidelines or rules that are used to judge performance.
Criterion-Referenced Tests
The individual’s performance is compared to an objective or performance standard, not to the performance of other students. Tests determine if skills have been mastered; do not compare a child’s performance to that of other children
Derived Score
A score to which raw scores are converted by numerical transformation (e.g., conversion of raw scores to percentile ranks or standard scores).
Diagnostic Test
A test used to diagnose, analyze or identify specific areas of weakness and strength; to determine the nature of weaknesses or deficiencies; ________ are used to measure skills.
Grade equivalents
Test scores that equate a score to a particular grade level. Example: if a child scores at the average of all fifth graders tested, the child would receive a grade equivalent score of 5.0. Use with caution.
Mastery Level
The cutoff score on a criterion-referencedt; people who score at or above the cutoff score are ____
Modifications.
Changes in the content, format, and/or administration of a test to accommodate test takers who are unable to take the test under standard test conditions.
Norm-referenced tests
Standardized tests designed to compare the scores of children to scores achieved by children the same age who have taken the same test.
Objectives.
Stated, desirable outcomes of education.
Performance Standards
Definitions of what a child must do to demonstrate proficiency at specific levels in content standards.
Portfolio.
A collection of work that shows progress and learning; can be designed to assess progress, learning, effort, and/or achievement.
Standard score
Score on norm-referenced tests that are based on the bell curve and its equal distribution of scores from the average of the distribution.
Authentic Assessment
a technique to examine students’ collective abilities via real-world challenges that requires them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge
Bandura, Albert
He found that although environment causes behavior, behavior also causes environment as well. ,“both the world the individual’s behavior "cause" affect each other. “father” of the cognitive movement, or, observational learning, commonly referred to as the famous, Bobo Doll studies. social learning theory.
Bloom's Taxonomy
1.) Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, reproduce, and state. (2.) Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, and translate.(3.) Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, and write. (4.) Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question,and test. (5.) Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, and write. And,(6.) Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, and evaluate.
Bruner, Jerome
He suggested that learning is an active process where students’ constructed new ideas and concepts based upon their current/past experiences and knowledge. The learned information selected is then transformed to constructs hypotheses and makes decisions based on the cognitive structure
Cooperative Learning
is an instructional approach that encourages students to work collaboratively as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks.
Constructivism
constructivist theory is a general framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition. _________ is based on the belief that children construct meaning from their experiences, and are not just passive receivers of information. Much of the theory is linked to child development research (especially Piaget's). The theory suggest that students reflect on their experiences, and construct an understanding of the world they live governed by their own "rules" to make sense of their experiences.
Deductive Reasoning
initiated from the general to the specific, and often referred to as the "top-down" approach.
Dewey, John
)- was concerned with how student the classroom environment affected learning.
Gardner, Howard
is credited with coining the Multiple Intelligences Theory which is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Researchers believe that each person's level of intelligence is made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. he identified seven such faculties he labels as `intelligences' including: musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, linguistic intelligence, special intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and, intrapersonal intelligence.
Gestalt theory
emphasized a higher-order cognitive process relative to behavior, and endorses the notion of grouping characteristics of stimuli to allow for the interpretation of a problem. The fundamental properties relative to grouping were called the laws of organization and explained in the context of perception and problem solving.
Guided Reading
is a strategy where experienced readers provide structure via modeling strategies in order to move beginning readerstowards independence
Learning Centers
are multi-level stations where activities designed for specific instructional purposes to provide reinforcement, independent practice, and Discovery.
Language Experience Approach
a method of teaching reading by using the reader's own dictated language. This approach allows the reader to read words common to their environment.
Literature Circles
are important to the cooperative reading process. endorsed four components reading, responding, creating projects, and sharing.
Metacognition
involves several important elements including, designing, monitoring, and assessing a specific plan of action. Steps students should take : (1) identify how much they know about a specific topic to consider for developing a project, (2) have an idea of exactly how much time they want to devote to the project, (3) have an idea of when the project is expected to be completed, (4) monitor their progress by reviewing their work relative to the project, and (5) assess their performance and/or satisfaction with the project or assignment. During this phase of the project, students should ask themselves, “am I satisfied?" or, "can I do a better job?" - "if so, how?” In short, thinking about thinking."
Mnemonic Device
a device, such as a formula or rhyme, used as an aid in remembering
Morphemes
are word forms and another component of syntax. are o the smallest meaningful units in language and word parts that could also change the meaning of a word.
Orthography
the study of the nature and use of symbols in a writing system; correct or standardized spelling according to established usage in a given language.
Phoneme
- A minimal sound unit of speech affects the naming of words in a language, such as /b/ in book contrasts with /r/ in rook, /l/ in look.
Phonics -
teaching reading and spelling that stresses basic symbol-sound relationships and their application in decoding words in beginning instruction
Phonogram
- a succession of letters representing the same phonological unit in different words, such as ed in red, bed, fed. or, IGHT in FLIGHT, MIGHT and TIGHT.
Piaget, Jean
psychologist constructed a model of child development and learning based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures or mental maps, "constructivism"
Portfolio Assessment
provides a body of student work--that can be used to evaluate student performance over time.
Reflective Teaching
involves the ability to: research & explore, question & analyze, and make changes to both lessons and curriculum based on learning results experienced in the classroom.
Rubric
a set of scoring guidelines for assessing student work including a summary listing of the characteristics that distinguish high quality work from low quality assignments.
Scaffolding
- is a metaphoric term used by Vygotsky to show how parents and teachers provide temporary assistance to children/students by modeling appropriate behavior or skills. In the classroom, teachers model or demonstrate specific strategies and gradually shift the responsibility to the student to demonstrate.
Schemata
a data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in memory. There are three types content, language, and textual.
Shared Reading
is an activity in where the teacher and students sit together around a Big Book so that all can see the print and pictures. Individual students are selected to point to print and the other students join in and reading at their own level of expertise. Sometimes, the teacher reads a passage while pointing to the words to help young readers learn to read.
Student Centered Classroom
It’s believed that the teacher can best serve a student individually in a ________, rather than in a teacher-centered classroom. In this setting, teachers function as colleagues rather than leaders.
Teacher Centered-Classroom
points out that students are passive recipients of the teachers knowledge, and later expected to regurgitate what they have learned
Vygotsky, Levis
credited with developing the Social Cultural learning model. _______ pointed out that culture is the prime determinant of individual development and humans are the only species to have created culture that helps children develop in the context of its culture. Language is an important process in the learning scheme.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD
is the gap between what individuals know and do not know about a specific topic. A child's _____ __ ____ ___ is the gap or range of specific tasks they can perform with assistance from parents or teachers, but are unable to perform on their own. Children's ability to learn is facilitated via their interaction with adults; therefore, extensive meaningful conversations between adults and children is important to the learning process.
Shared Reading
The teacher reads aloud while students follow along using individual copies of a book, a class chart, or a big book.
Guided Reading
Teacher supports students as they read texts at their reading levels. Students are grouped homogeneously.
Independent Reading
Students read a text independently and often choose the text themselves.
Admissions and Release Committee (ARC
means a group of individuals described in 707 KAR 1:320 Section 3 that is responsible for developing, reviewing, or revising an Individual Education Program (IEP) for a child with a disability.
Adverse effect”
means that the progress of the child is impeded by the disability to the extent that the educational performance is significantly and consistently below the level of similar age peers.
Assistive technology device
means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
Assistive technology service
” means any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an Assistive technology device. This term shall include:
(a) The evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the child in the child’s customary environment;(b) Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of Assistive technology devices by children with disabilities;
(c) Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing Assistive technology devices;
(d) Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with Assistive technology devices, like those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs;
(e) Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability or, if appropriate, that child's family; and
(f) Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of the child.
“Basic Reading Skills
means the use of the processes of perception, and word recognition (including decoding and matching) to acquire meaning from written materials.
“Behavioral Observation
means written documentation of targeted behaviors, as identified by the ARC in the referral, conducted in the environment in which the targeted behaviors occur, and by personnel, other than a student’s teacher, specially trained in observation techniques and methods.
Disability
means a child evaluated in accordance with 707 KAR 1:300, as meeting the criteria listed in this section for autism, deaf-blindness, developmental delay, emotional-behavior disability, hearing impairment, mental disability, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, specific learning disability, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, or visual impairment which has an adverse effect on the child’s educational performance and who, as a result, needs special education and related services.
“Consent” means
) A parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought, in his native language, or other mode of communication
(b) A parent understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for which his consent is sought, and the consent describes the activity and lists the records, if any, that will be released and to whom; and
(c) A parent understands that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent and may be revoked at any time; and
(d) If a parent revokes consent, that revocation is not retroactive (i.e., it does not negate an action that has occurred after the consent was given and before the consent was revoked).
Developmental Delay
means that a child within the ages of three (3) through eight (8) has not acquired skills, or achieved commensurate with recognized performance expectations for his age in one (1) or more of the following developmental areas: cognition, communication, motor development, social-emotional development, or self-help/adaptive behavior. Developmental delay includes a child who demonstrates a measurable, verifiable discrepancy between expected performance for the child’s chronological age and current level of performance. The discrepancy shall be documented by:
(a) Scores of two (2) standard deviations or more below the mean in one (1) of the areas listed above as obtained using norm-referenced instruments and procedures; or
(b) Scores of one and one-half (1½) standard deviations below the mean in two (2) or more of the areas listed above using norm-referenced instruments and procedures; or
“Emotional-behavioral disability (EBD
)” means that a child, when provided with interventions to meet instructional and social-emotional needs, continues to exhibit one (1) or more of the following, when compared to the child’s peer and cultural reference groups, across settings, over a long period of time and to a marked degree:
(a) Severe deficits in social competence or appropriate behavior, which cause an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with adults or peers;
(b) Severe deficits in academic performance which are not commensurate with the student’s ability level and are not solely a result of intellectual, sensory, or other health factors but are related to the child’s social-emotional problem;
(c) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or
(d) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
“Extended School Year Services
means specially designed instruction and related services that are provided to a child with a disability beyond the normal school year in accordance with the child’s IEP at no cost to the parents.
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE
means special education and related services that:
(a) Are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge;
(b) Meet the standards of the state of Education as appropriate;
(c) Include preschool, elementary school, or secondary school education in the state; and
(d) Are provided in conformity with an individual education program (IEP) that meets the requirements of 707 KAR 1:320.
“Full and Individual Evaluation
” means the collection, analysis, interpretation, and documentation of a variety of evaluation data sources related to the suspected disability, administered selectively with the individual student, which is used by an Admissions and Release Committee (ARC) to determine eligibility and plan an appropriate individual education program including but not limited to current information on health, vision, and hearing; social and emotional status; general intelligence; academic performance; communicative status; motor abilities; teacher recommendations; physical condition; social and cultural background; adaptive behavior, informal and formal testing; behavior observation; teacher and parent interviews; work samples; social and developmental history; medical history; school and anecdotal records; information across all areas of development sufficient to determine if there is a need for further assessment in any areas including cognition, communication, motor development, social-emotional development, or self-help or adaptive behavior. A standardized test given to a student shall be conducted under standard conditions unless a description of the extent to which it varied from standard conditions is documented in the evaluation report.
“Hearing impairment (HI)”
means that a child has a hearing loss that has an adverse effect on the child’s educational performance, whether permanent or fluctuating, ranging from mild to profound (a loss of twenty-five (25) decibels (DB) or greater exists through speech frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hertz (Hz) in the better ear), and of a degree that the child is impaired in the processing of linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.
“IDEA”-
The 7 components that must be included on an IEP.

(1)the child's present levels of educational performance;
(2) measurable annual goals, including benchmarks or short- term objectives;
(3) the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided to the child;
(4) an explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class;
(5) many individual modifications in the administration of state- or district-wide assessments of student achievement that are needed for the child to participate in such assessment (or alternative assessments);
(6) the projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications described in number 3 and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications; and
(7) how the child's progress toward the annual goals will be measured and how the child's parents will be regularly informed of their child's progress
“Individual Education Program (IEP)”
means a written statement for a child
with a disability that is developed, reviewed and revised
Local Educational Agency
a public local board of education or other legally constituted public authority that has either administrative control or direction of public elementary or secondary schools in a school district
Mental disability
(a) A mild mental disability (MMD) in which:
1. Cognitive functioning is at least two (2) but no more than three (3) standard deviations below the mean;
2. Adaptive behavior deficit is at least two (2) standard deviations below the mean;
3. A severe deficit exists in overall academic performance including acquisition, retention, and application of knowledge; and
4. Is typically manifested during the developmental period; or
(b) A functional mental disability (FMD) in which:
1. Cognitive functioning is at least three (3) or more standard deviations below the mean;
2. Adaptive behavior deficits are at least three (3) or more standard deviations below the mean;
3. A severe deficit exists in overall academic performance including acquisition, retention, and application of knowledge; and
4. Is typically manifested during the developmental period.
Multiple Disabilities (MD
means concomitant impairments that have an adverse effect on the child’s educational performance (e.g., mental disability-blindness, mental disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes severe educational needs that cannot be accommodated in special education programs
Native Language
(a) The language normally used by that individual, or, in the case of a child, the language normally used by the parents of the child;
(b) In all direct contact with a child (including evaluation of the child), the language normally used by the child in the home or learning environment; or
(c) For an individual with deafness or blindness, or for an individual with no written language, the mode of communication that is normally used by the individual (e.g., sign language, Braille, or oral communication).
On-Going Progress Data
means a record of a student’s movement toward mastery of the annual goal. The criteria and evaluation procedure to be used is stated in the short-term instructional objective.
Orthopedic Impairment (OI
means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes an impairment caused by a congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), an impairment caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc), and an impairment from other cause (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that causes contractures).
Other Health Impairment (OHI
means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that:
(a) Is due to a chronic or acute health problem, e.g., acquired immune deficiency syndrome, asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, HCS poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, or tuberculosis; and
(b) Adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Participating Agency
means a state or local agency that is financially and legally responsible for providing transition services to a child with a disability.
Re-evaluation
means a review of existing evaluation data on the student including:
(a) Evaluations and information provided by the parents;
(b) Current classroom-based assessments, observations, on-going progress data;
(c) Observations by teachers and related service providers; and
(d) If appropriate, other formal assessments
Referral”
written information about a student, suspected of having a disability, that includes:
(a) Personally identifiable data;
(b) A description of current status in all areas, including areas of concern; and
(c) Appropriate instruction, support services and intervention provided for any area of concern that adversely affects educational performance.
Related Services
” means transportation and such developmental, corrective, or supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. It includes speech-language pathology and audio logy services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation including therapeutic recreation, early identification and assessment of disabilities in children, counseling services including rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes.
“Special Education
means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of the child with a disability including instruction in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings. Speech-language pathology services, (if the service is considered special education rather than a related service), travel training, and vocational education.
Specially-Designed Instruction
means adapting as appropriate the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs of the child with a disability and to ensure access of the child to the general curriculum included in the Program of Studies, 704 KAR 3:303.
Specific Learning Disability (SLD
means a disorder in one (1) or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in diminished ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions like perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Specific Learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Speech or Language Impairment
means a communication disorder, including stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, a voice impairment, delayed acquisition of language, or an absence of language, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Student”
” means any child or youth aged three (3) to twenty-one (21) who is eligible to receive services
“Supplementary Aids and Services
means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes or other education-related settings to enable a child with disabilities to be educated with non-disabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with 707 KAR 1:350.
“Transition Services
means a coordinated set of activities for a child with a disability that:
(a) Is designed within an outcome-oriented process (i.e., a process that outlines how a student will achieve goals consistent with the general curriculum, as appropriate), that promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation;
(b) Is based on the individual student’s needs, taking into account the child’s preferences and interests; and
(c) Includes:
1. Instruction;
2. Related services; and
3. Community experiences;
4. The development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives; and
5. If appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation.
“Visual impairment
means a child has a vision loss, even with correction, as follows:
(a) Visual acuity even with prescribed lenses that is 20/70 or worse in the better eye; or
(b) Visual acuity that is better than 20/70 and the child has one (1) of the following conditions:
1. A medically diagnosed progressive loss of vision;
2. A visual field of twenty (20) degrees or worse;
3. A medically diagnosed condition of cortical blindness; or
4. A functional vision loss;
(c) Requires specialized materials, instruction in orientation and mobility, Braille, visual efficiency, or tactile exploration; and
(d) Has an adverse effect on the child’s educational performance.
continuum of services
A range of personnel to provide needed specialized services such as speech, physical, or occupational therapy
Standard achievement tests (norm-referenced tests)
Tests that measure the student's level of achievement compared with the achievement of students of similar age or grade.
diagnostic achievement tests
Tests help educators understand how a student solves a problem by examining the strategies that he or she uses when learning. They help us determine why a child is struggling so that we can offer appropriate support or remediation.
ecology of the child
Those forces surrounding and impacting on the child from family, culture, peers, physical setting, etc
resource room
An instructional setting to which an exceptional child comes for specific periods of time, usually on a regularly scheduled basis
assessment
A process for identifying a child's strengths and weaknesses; it involves 5 steps: screening, diagnoisis, classification, placement, and monitoring or discharge.
inclusion
The process of bringing children with exceptionalitites into the regular classroom
scientifically based research?
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (2001) defines programs validated through s involving the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education programs.
Differentiated instruction
 addresses student readiness, which includes prior knowledge and skills
 addresses student interest
 addresses a student’s learning profile, which includes learning style, environmental factors that affect the student’s learning, and the student’s grouping preferences
Children with –
Short- and long- term memory problems,Difficulty with abstract problems,
Difficulty with decoding,
Lack of organizational skills
Mnemonics improves memory by linking new information to current knowledge through visual and verbal cues.
“Transition Services
means a coordinated set of activities for a child with a disability that:
(a) Is designed within an outcome-oriented process (i.e., a process that outlines how a student will achieve goals consistent with the general curriculum, as appropriate), that promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation;
(b) Is based on the individual student’s needs, taking into account the child’s preferences and interests; and
(c) Includes:
1. Instruction;
2. Related services; and
3. Community experiences;
4. The development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives; and
5. If appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation.
“Visual impairment
means a child has a vision loss, even with correction, as follows:
(a) Visual acuity even with prescribed lenses that is 20/70 or worse in the better eye; or
(b) Visual acuity that is better than 20/70 and the child has one (1) of the following conditions:
1. A medically diagnosed progressive loss of vision;
2. A visual field of twenty (20) degrees or worse;
3. A medically diagnosed condition of cortical blindness; or
4. A functional vision loss;
(c) Requires specialized materials, instruction in orientation and mobility, Braille, visual efficiency, or tactile exploration; and
(d) Has an adverse effect on the child’s educational performance.
continuum of services
A range of personnel to provide needed specialized services such as speech, physical, or occupational therapy
Standard achievement tests (norm-referenced tests)
Tests that measure the student's level of achievement compared with the achievement of students of similar age or grade.
diagnostic achievement tests
Tests help educators understand how a student solves a problem by examining the strategies that he or she uses when learning. They help us determine why a child is struggling so that we can offer appropriate support or remediation.
ecology of the child
Those forces surrounding and impacting on the child from family, culture, peers, physical setting, etc
resource room
An instructional setting to which an exceptional child comes for specific periods of time, usually on a regularly scheduled basis
assessment
A process for identifying a child's strengths and weaknesses; it involves 5 steps: screening, diagnoisis, classification, placement, and monitoring or discharge.
inclusion
The process of bringing children with exceptionalitites into the regular classroom
scientifically based research?
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (2001) defines programs validated through scientifically based research as involving the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education programs.
Differentiated instruction
 addresses student readiness, which includes prior knowledge and skills
 addresses student interest
 addresses a student’s learning profile, which includes learning style, environmental factors that affect the student’s learning, and the student’s grouping preferences
Children with –
Short- and long- term memory problems
Difficulty with abstract problems

Difficulty with decoding

Lack of organizational skills
Mnemonics improves memory by linking new information to current knowledge through visual and verbal cues.

Includes three methods–

Keyword (linking new information to known words)

Pegword (using rhyming word to represent number or order)

Letter strategies (using acronyms and acrostics)
Diagnostic Prescriptive Method
The process of diagnosing individual learners needs and prescribing learning experiences to remedy these needs.
Modality
Learning modalities are the sensory channels or pathways through which individualsgive receive and store information.
Direct Instruction
Teachere centered
Model
Drill
practice
Feedback
Precisely sequence lessons
Functional Academics
refers to a skill used in real life.
Language aquisition
one of the central topics in cognitive science. The main vehicle by which we know about other people's thoughts.
Individual Transition Plans
based on individual needs, strengths, skills, and interests.
Used to identify and develop goals for students beginning at 14 years of age which need to be accomplished during the current school year
Augmentative and alternate communication
Specialized gestures
sign language
Communication aids- charts, bracelets and language boards.
Objects may represent pictures
Sensory disabilities
involves the presence of hearing loss and vision loss.
Sensory disabilities technology
-prefer signed communication at close range.
-may prefer large print or devices that magnify.
Informal Reading Inventory
Teacher use as a diagnostic reading tool for students k-12.
Basal Reading Inventory BRI
recommend to classroom teachers to help plan reading instruction
Target Behavior
behavior defined explictly so that it can be observed, measured.
Miscues
a way of aquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studing the mistakes they make.
Measureable consequent events:
-Positive reinforcement
-Negative reinforcement
-ignoring the student behavior
-Punishment
-Behavioral interventions
Functional analysis
A procedure for analyzing behavior problems which are socially mediated in order to identify the multiple functions of behavior.
Frequency methods
examines patterns... the method of doing something repeately over and over
Anecdotal data
refers to evidenced based on reports of specific individual ncases rather than controlle studies.
interval methods
using small intervals to track the accuracy of processes and using large intervals to approximate the value of some function
Duration methods
The period of time during which something continues
Paychoeducational models
combines social skill instruction with intervention strategies to support both you and the youth
Life space Interview
counseling approach used to manage behavior and change behavior patterns of students.
Decision making
involves
1. Giving consideration to a matter
2. Identifying the desired end result
3. Determining the options to getting the end result
4. Then selecting the most suitable option to achieve the desired purpose.
- Teacher decisions about issues will influence student learning
Decisions about Basic Teaching Function
1. Planning
2. Implementing
3. Assessing
Planning
involves
1. Teacher decisions about student needs
2. The most appropriate goals and objectives
3. Content to be taught
4. Instructional Strategies
5. Lesson delivery techniques
6. Instructional Media
7. Classroom Climate
8. Student Assessment
- Goal of planning is to ensure student learning
Implementing
involves the actual enactment of the instructional plans concerning lesson delivery and assessment.
- presenting and explaining, questioning, listening, monitoring, giving feedback and demonstrating are teaching skills that support implementation
- occurs when interacting with students
Assessing
involves determining the level of student learning
ESSENTIAL TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS
1. Knowledge
2. Skills
3. Dispositions
Means to measure student learning include:
. Paper and pencil tests
2. Portfolios
3. Work Samples
4. Projects
5. Reports
6. Journals
7. Models
8. Presentations
9. Demonstrations
10. Various other types of product and performance assessments
Pedagogical content knowledge
o Involves teaching methods that are unique to a particular subject or the subject or application of certain strategies in a special way for a subject
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
Requires every teacher working in a public school to be highly qualified by the end of the 2005-2006 school years.
- Provisions:
o Highly qualified teachers
 o State Requirements
 o Demonstration of competency
o State Standards of evaluation
A Framework for teaching
Domain 1: Planning and Preparation
- Domain 2: Classroom Environment
- Domain 3: Instruction
- Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities
Learning Community
classroom designed to help all students feel safe, respected, and valued in order to learn new skills
Constructivist theory
individuals construct meaning and understanding through
prior knowledge and then apply this knowledge in new current situations.
In a constructivist classroom,
• Posing contradictions
• Presenting new information
• Asking questions
• Encouraging research
• Engaging students in inquiries designed to challenge current concepts
In a constructivist classroom:
. Teachers seek and value their students’ points of view
2. Classroom activities challenge students’ suppositions
3. Teachers pose problems of emerging relevance
4. Teachers build lessons around primary concepts and “big” ideas
5. Teachers access student learning in the context of daily teaching
Planning for instruction
refers to decisions that are made about organizing, implementing and evaluating instruction
REASONS FOR PLANNING
1. Gain a sense of direction
2. Organize, sequence and become familiar with course content
3. Collect and prepare related instructional material, and plan to use various instructional media
4. Use a variety of strategies and activities over time
5. Incorporate techniques to motivate students
6. Take into account individual differences when selecting objectives, content, strategies, material and requirements
7. Arrange for appropriate requirements and evaluate student performance
8. Become a reflective decision maker about curriculum and instruction
9. Provide subs and members of teaching team with a specific plan to follow if you are absent.
FACTORS RELATED TO INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES
Content
Materials
Instructional strategies –
Teacher behaviors –
Structure of a lesson –
Learning environment –
Student –
Duration of a lesson – Location of a lesson –
Content
– refers to the knowledge, skill, rule, concept, or creative process that you wish students to learn
Materials
– the tangible written, physical, or visual stimuli that are used in instruction
Instructional strategies
examples, lectures, demonstrations, questions, recitations, practice, drills, discussions, panels and debates or small groups, role playing, lab work, computer-assisted instruction
Teacher behaviors
make plans to state expectations, provide a set induction, maintain a group focus, provide smooth transitions, clearly present lesson content, provide closure and a summary, and handle other aspects of conducting a lesson
THE LINEAR RATIONAL MODEL
sequential process based on clear goals and objectives
- Instructional planning involves sequential decisions about
o Formulation of goals
o Specifications of objectives
o Assessment of student needs relative to the stated goals and objectives
o Selection of strategies and learning activities linked to the objectives
o Evaluation of student performance
Aims
broad statements about the intent of education; often written by national or state panels, commissions, or policy-making groups; they express a philosophy of education and concepts about the social role of schools and the needs of children.
Goals
non-behavioral and provide direction for educators, but they do not specify achievement levels; often written by professional associations and state and local educational agencies to serve as guidelines for school and curriculum guides for what all students should accomplish over their entire school career.
Curriculum guide
a document that identifies the objectives and content that are to be included in a give grade level for a given subject; commonly include subject-specific course goals, a fairly detailed outline of curricular content, recommended instructional activities, an annotated bibliography, and an annotated list of films, filmstrips, videotapes, computer software, and other instructional resources; often revised every few years.
OBE – Outcomes Based Education
involves focusing and organizing all the school’s programs and efforts with an emphasis on clearly defined outcomes which all students must demonstrate upon exit from the course, program, or grade level.
Learning objectives
statements of what is hoped that students will achieve through instruction, and they are narrower in scope than subject-specific goals.
Performance objectives
written for daily lesson plans and are stated in behavioral terms to indicate what is to be observed and measured; when writing them consider the parts of the stated objective and the learning domains represented
Parts of performance objectives
) An action statement identifying the action that the teacher expects the student to perform
b) A conditions statement identifying the conditions under which the action occurs
c) A criterion statement identifying the criteria or level of performance expected of the student
action statement
The ________________ is always stated in terms of what the student is expected to know or do.
The 3 learning domains are:
Cognitive –
Affective –
Psychomotor
Cognitive
refers to mental or intellectual thinking skills and abilities
Affective
classifies student attitudes toward learning
Psychomotor
involves physical movement and related skills
Bloom’s Taxonomy has 6 levels of the cognitive domain dealing with mental or intellectual thinking skills and abilities:
1. Knowledge –
2. Comprehension –
3. Application –
4. Analysis –
5. Synthesis –
6. Evaluation – the highest level of complexity and includes objectives related to judging in terms of a)internal evidence or logical consistency and b) external evidence or consistency with facts developed elsewhere.
Analysis
objectives related to breaking a whole into parts and distinguishing a) elements, b) relationships, c) organizational principles
Synthesis
objectives related to putting parts together in a new form such as a) a unique communication, b) a plan of operation, and c) a set of abstract relations
Cognitive Domain
KNOWLEDGE
COMPREHENSION
APPLICATION
ANALYSIS
SYNTHESIS
EVALUATION
Cultural diversity
is reflected in the wide variety of values, beliefs, attitudes, and rules that define regional, ethnic, religious, or other culture groups.
Students at Risk
children and adolescents who are not able to acquire and/or use the skills necessary to develop their potential and become productive members of society. Students potentially at risk include children who face adverse conditions beyond their control, those who do not speak English as a first language, talented but unchallenged students, those with special problems and many others. At risk students often have academic difficulties and thus may be low achievers.
Learning style
– an individual’s preferences for the conditions of the learning process that can affect one’s learning, including where, when and how learning takes place and with what materials.
Cognitive style
– refers to the way people process information and use strategies in responding to tasks
Student Characteristics That Teachers can differentiate
. in their readiness to work with a particular idea or skill at a given time
2. in the topics that they find interesting
3. learning profiles that may be shaped by gender, culture, learning style, or intelligence preference
Direct Instructional Approaches
those in which teachers tell the students the concept or skill to be learned and then lead students through most of instructional activities designed to lead student learning
o Direct Instructions
o Presentations
o Demonstrations
o Questions recitations
o Practice and drills
o Reviews
o Guided practice and homework
Inductive instructional approaches
those that are involved in some type of exploratory activity helping lead students to discover a concept or generalization
o Concept attainment strategies
o Inquiry lessons
o Projects, reports and problems
Social instructional approaches
Students working together in various ways to gather, process, and learn the information or skills
o Discussions
o Cooperative learning
o Panels and debates
o Role Playing
o Simulations
o Games
Independent instructional approaches
allows students to pursue content independently with less teacher direction than other lessons
o Learning centers
o Contracts
o Independent Work
Steps to yhe IEP process
pre-referral
referral
evaluation
elligibility
development
impementation
annual review
Fundalmental provisions of IDEA
FAPE
LRE
IEP
parent's rights to notification
Individulized Instruction for all
necessarry related services
federal assistance with excess cost
Individualized assessments
IDEA procedures and safegaurds
To parents,parents, parents
-notice of meetings
-permission for evaluation\-access to child's school records
-understand child's placement
-conflict resolution mediation or due process
-collect attorney fees
IDEA program plans
-IFSP-0-3
-IEP-4-21
-Transition ITP-14
Accomodations
procedures that provide equal access
-presentation
-resonses
-Timing/scheduling
-setting
Best Practice
Explicit Instruction
Content enhancements
Learning Strategies
Phonology
sound system of language
Morphology
meanings and structures of words- prefixes/suffixes
Reciprocal Teaching
teaching tactic where teachers and students switch roles prediciting, summarizing, questioning,and clarifying reading passages.
The concept of Readiness (Vitgoski)
Differentiated Instruction
recognizing students various backgrounds, knowledge, readiness language, preference
in learning interests
Differential instruction
(Zone of Proximal Distance)
Clarify key concepts
Use assessments
empasize critical/creative thinking.
Engage all learners
Provide balanceteachers assigned/student selected tasks
Modifications
Substantial changes in what the student is expected to do.
-instructional level
-content
-performance criteria
-tests and formats
-alternate assessments
Remediation
The process by which an individual receives instruction and practice skills.
Preferred teaching methods
Co-operative learning
Peer instruction
Assessments and Feedback
Continuous
Embedded
Provides critical information to guide selections of activities, content and support
Motivation is intrinsic
IDEA
primary law governing Spec.Ed.
outlines child rights
-Meet the unique needs
-Incorporate technology and support services.
-Designed to meet specific, predetermined outcomes
-Provide a LRE
Embedded Learning
-Brief
-Systematic instructional interaction
-Systematic explicit instruction of language skills
Adaptive Behavior
The degree in which the individual meets the standards of personal independence and social responsibility
IEP
Goals-parents &IEP team thinks the chils will be able to do
Objectives- skills needed to develop to achieve the goal
Benchmarks- shows mastery lavel at various points of the year.
Behavior- what the child will do
Criterion-level at which the child will perform
Evaluation-tool used to evaluate accuracy