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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gender (stratification)--functionalism
division of labor
men= provider
women= caretaker
gender (Strat)--conflict
opportunities unequally distributed
glass ceiling effect
power is unequal
gender (Strat)--interactionism
diff. communication styles
interrupt= men
ask questions = women
women want to make connections and develop intimacy
men want to gain the upperhand and pwr
sexism
the belief that one sex is superior or inferior to the other
unequal treatment of women--workplace
occupational segregation
wage gap: for every $1 that men make, women make 76 cents
sexual harassment
sexual harassment (2)
1) quid pro quo
2) hostile environment
quid pro quo
this for that
sexual behaviors traded for rewards
hostile environment
uncomfrotable situations
innappropriate comments, looks, jokes, etc
the graying of america
size of elderly population is growing
longer life expectancy
aging--functionalism
disengagement theory
disengagement thoery
a theory explaining how society prevents disruptionw hen the elderly vacate or disengage from their positions of responsibility
the elderly smoothly remove themselves at the same time as the young move in and take their places
aging--interactionism
activity theory
activity theory
the more activities the elderly engage in, the greater their life satifsfaction

discusses what happens after they retire
aging--conflict theory
oppressed by other groups
ageism
ageism
prejudice directed at people because of their age
baby boomers
60s/70s: a lot of power due to large disposable income
lots of cultural clout

now: less financially secure
less cultural clout

we hold it now
the stigma of aging
2 sterotypes of elderly:
1) ill, slow, dependent, poor
2) wealthy, powerful

1) self-fulfilling prophecy, other ppl impose limitations so they fit this description
2) other ppl may not offer the help that elderly really need, take away social security or political pwr

most elderly fall b/t these two extremes
gender inequality across cultures
what we think of as gender inequality is all relative
you must make a cross-cultural comparison
family
a set of ppl related by blood, marriage or some other agreed-upon relationship, or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society
family scope
nuclear family
extended family
nuclear family
married couple and their unmarried children living together
extended family
additional relatives beyond the parents and children live in the same home
more commone among racial and ethnic minorities
timing and purpose
family of orientation
family of procreation
family of orientation
the family in which the individual grew up in
family of procreation
the family which is formed when a couple marries or has their first child
monogamy
a marriage of one male to one female
serial monogomy
the idea that one can have multiple spouses in one's lifetime, but only one at a time
polygamy
marriage between one person of one sex and a minimum of two persons of the other sex
polygyny
b/t one man and multiple women
polyandry
one woman and multiple men
patriarchy
authority is vested primarily in the father
traditional
matriarchy
mother primarily has the authority
egalitarian family
pwr and authority are more equally balanced b/t parents
common now
dual-earner families
increase
"second shift"
second shift
over 50 dual-earner couples for 8 yrs observed
in a 12-month period, women ended up working an extra month of 24-hour days (work then kids and house afterwards)--second shift
divorce rate
steady since 1980's
highest of all industrailized countries
# of divorces in one yr/# of existing marriages in that yr
2%
single-parent families
families maintained by a parent who has never married or who is between marriages
fastest growing type of family in the US
25% of all families
>80% are headed by mothers
50% are below poverty line
blended families
a family whose members were once part of other families
over 15% of children live with a step-parent in the US
voluntary childlessness
childfree
>15% of women don't have kids during their childbearing yrs
cohabitation
increse
same-sex couples, try-out prd, etc
increases chance of divorce later on
ecclesiae
religious organizations that claim to include most or all of the members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion
church and govnt work together
very large and pretty rare
denominations
large, organized religions that are not officially llinked with govnt
sects
religious groups that have broken away from some other religious organizaation to return to what they believe to be the roots of the faith
small
cults
religious groups representing eigher a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith
church membership
increasing
worship
decreasing
26% attend worship service every week
highest rate of church membership
south
lowest rate of church membership
west
upper class religions
jewish, episcopalian
lower class religions
baptists, sects
racial/ethnic religions
greek-americans: orthodox
african-americans: baptist
latinos and irish: catholic
age and religion
membership increases with age
functions served by religion
integrates society: rituals, sense of solidarity
links individuals to the larger society
guidelines for daily life
sense of meaning and purpose
dysfunctions of religion
war
justify persecution
education--conflict theory
unequal funding
tracking
intelligence tests
race/ethnicity and college attendance
tracking in education
sorting students based on some real or perceived abilites
general, college prep, honors
intelligence tests
culturally biased
race/ethnicity and college attendance
improving, but minorities are still less likely to go to college
education--interactionism
teacher-expectancy effect: the impact that a teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have upon the student's actual achievements
ray rist experiment
violence in city schools
after school programs are underfunded-- only certain students are eligible because some can't afford it, low grades, or behavioral probs
those who are most at risk of turning to violence are ineligible to participate
few programs in elementary schools--needs to be more to make it part of their routine
the appeal of cults
negative connotation
selective view of what cults are or what they do
why join? sense of belonging and structure/certainty
staying single
increase
25% of all households are single adults
higher avg age at first marriage
family--functionalism (6)
outcome of the family
6 functions:
1) reproduction
2) protection--dependence for survival
3) socialization
4) regualation of sexual behavior (monogomy, sex ed, etc)
5) affection and companionship
6) providing social status
family--conflict theory
as a social institution, family exacurbates gender, as well as social class, inequalities (ie patriarchal families, second shit)
recreate the status quo--pass it on
family--interactionism
focuses on interactions b/t family members, emphasizing the importance of socialization
teaching process
who's minding the kids?
peers and media are the ones watching over kids
who isn't? schools, family, religion
peers: may not know right from wrong, stay silent
let the system do it
socialization
why let the system do it? efficiency, out of sight, out of mind
uncomfortable, fearful
NIMBY
NIMBY
not in my back yard
in regard to prisons and mental institutions
religion--conflict theory
Weber: connection b/t religion and capitalist development
protestant ethics in relation to capitalism
Marx: religion hinders social change by encouraging oppressed ppl to focus on other worldly concerns rather than on their state of poverty or exploitation
religion--interactionsm
belief, ritual, experience
education--functionalism
manifest (open) functions: knowledge, status
latent (hidden) functions: transmitting culture, promoting social and political integration, maintaining social constrol, and serving as agents of change