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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Material Culture
The physical objects created by a culture ex; buildings, tools
non-material culture
ways of using material culture
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own culture
cultural relativism
The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture
xenocentrism
belief that one's own culture is inferior
Formal norm
a written out punishment for those who violate it (a law)
informal norm
not official, but generally understood (ex: appropriate attire)
Folkway
just something agreed that you don't do, but not a big deal if you do it anyway (ex: amish ppl don't drive)
More
something with major consequeces if you do it when your not supposed to (ex: murder)
Sanction
a pentaly or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
socialization
lifelong learning about the behaviors and actions of being a member of your culture
symbolic
family level relations- identity - how they show who they are (ex: amish clothing)
Functionalist Perspective
well- integrated society people are socialized to preform social functions- public punishments reinforce th social order
Maifest Functions
concious function(ex: education is manifest function of UD)
Latent Function
unconcious function; hidden purpose (ex: to keep unemployment down)
dysfunctions
may disrupt social system & lead to instability (ex; drug use)
Conflict Perspective
Underplays social cohesion or stability, opposing viewpoints; competition between different groups
Interactionist Perspective
One on One interactions- understanding of everyday behavior- people create their social worlds through interaction
Authority
Power that is put over people and is recognized by the people it's put over
Traditional Authority
customs or accepted practices in a given culture
Legal-Rational Authority
Power made legitimate by law
Charismatic Authority
Power made by a leader's personal emotional appeal to their followers (ex: Oprah, Joan of Arc)
Force
Coercsion- threatening
Influence
using power through the process of persuasion
Micro soci perspective
social interaction- how people react to us on a day to day basis
Macro soci perspective
How we transmit ideas and attitudes about our culture over succeeding generations
Anticipatory Socilization
rehearsals for future social interaction
Resocialization
- dicarding old behaviors and accepting new ones
Total institutions
Regulate all aspects of a persons life- PRISON- Break down existing identity of a person and give them uiniformity
Focus groups
people feed off of one another- but people might be intimidated to share in a group setting- evaluation research
Value Neutrality
Acknowledge your biases
Operational definition
explanations of abstract concepts you're interested in studying
variable
a measurement characteristic
dependant variable
dependant on the independant variable
independant variable
influences another variable to change
research design
surveys, questionnaires, etc
Hawthorne effect
tried different things to see what increased worker productivity
Disseminating results
share your information
Barbara Ehrenreich
undercover- studied people she was working with
Mitchell Duneier
lived like a hobo to study people- immersed himself in environment
Non-Participant observation
subjects are unaware that they are being studied
Secondary analysis
uses data collected by other people- con: relys on their data- pro: good for time
sociology
The systematic study of social behavior in human groups
Comte
- coined term Sociology
- more rational thinking
- systematic behavior to improve society
Martineau
- UK and US relations
- activist
- economy- how they solve social problems
Spencer
- applied Darwin's evolutionary view to the development of societies
- SURVIVAL of the fittest
Durkheim
- religion
- group cohesion
- Anomie- sense of aloness
- Suicide
Weber
-Verstehen-
-ideal type- understand the inside not just the outside
Marx
-communist manifesto
- poor and bourgeoise
- society is divided by class struggles
Cooley
face-to face interactions- gangs, families, friendship networks
Addams
- FEMALE
- combined theoretical interest and Social service work
- juvenile court system- underpriveleged
Merton
-Deviant behavior
- Macro and Micro level approaches
-deviation from socially accepted behavior to achieve other socially accepted goals (cheat on a test in order to pass)
Parsons
- functionalist perspective
DuBois
NAACP- helped form- assist in the fight against racism
Wells- Barnets
- Black Female
- feminist theorist
- wrote about lynchings
Mead
-interactionist perspective
-interactions in small groups
- how people react with non-verbal cues (nodding, smiles, etc)
Goffman
-symbolic interactionist
-dramaturgical approach- seeing life as though you are watching a play- the world is your stage
Sociological theory
trying to explain human behavior
Microstructures
intimate social relations formed through face-to face interactions(ex: families, friendship circles, etc.)
Macrostructures
-social relations that lie outside your circle of intimates Patriarchy-inequality between men and women(ex: household work)
Global Structures
- how global factors lead to inequality, have an impact
-international organizations,economic relations between countries
Inductive
begin with data- analyze data -build theory
deductive
begin with theory- collect data- test theory
death penalty cases
80% white
postage stamp
Jane Addams
37% BAS/MA graduates
Business and Commerce
high educational levels
high income levels
causal logic
independant variable influences dependant variable
scientific method
define problem, review literature, formulate hypothesis, collect and analyze data, and develop conclusion
NHSLS
survey to better understand sexual practices of adults in the U.S
content analysis
the recording of data guided by some rationale.
Murdock
cultural universals- general practices foudn in every culture
diffusion
the spread of cultural items from one place to another
Piaget
cognitive theory of development- 4 stages- moral development linked to socialization
Mead
Stages of the self
-theory of self
Preperatory Stage
children imitate those around them- symbols
Play stage
children pretend to be other people- role taking
Game stage
child starts to understand their position and the positions of the people around them
generalized other
child takes into account others, not just themselves
face-work
responding to embarassing or rejecting situations
impression management
Sharing grades with "Aces", and "Bombers"