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43 Cards in this Set

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Power
The ability to make someone do something they do not want to do; or, the ability to carry out one’s will, even over the resistance of others
Traditional authority
authority based on custom in small, preindustrial societies
Representative democracy
you elect people who in turn make decisions on your behalf
Oligarchy
rule by the few
The debate about democracy in the U.S.
Pluralists believe that there is a true democracy; elitists such as C. Wright Mills believe there is very little real democracy and that a small elite runs things.
Characteristics of capitalism
private ownership of the means of production, free markets, pursuit of profit
Characteristics of socialism
public ownership of the means of production, central economic planning, distribution of goods without profit motive
Voucher system
Government issues a voucher which is the same as tuition money. Not a popular trend in Louisiana although the Bush Administration likes the idea. Critics say it violates the Constitutional separation between church and state
Charter schools
a private company comes in to run the school. Edison Schools is one of the nation’s leading providers of charter schools. They have produced mixed results, sometimes exceeding expectations and other times not meeting expectations
Max Weber
author of the book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
The Protestant Ethic
the work habits of Protestants, including, hard work, self-denial, morality, and frugality. This work ethic comes through in the writings of Ben Franklin
Calvinist
followers of John Calvin, they were the type of Protestants that Weber was especially interested in; and they best exemplified the protestant ethic. They often reinvested profits back into their businesses
Predestination
the Calvinist idea that God knows whether one will be saved or go to heaven; and this is known by Him (God) at the moment of one’s birth. Roots of capitalism can be traced back to this belief, according to Max Weber
Church
a large, socially acceptable organization that is heavily bureaucratic
Sect
smaller than a church, and often a “breakaway” group from one of the churches; may have rigid requirements in order to join. There is tension between the sect and the society. Sects may eventually grow into churches.
Cult
a new religious tradition; often this new tradition is opposed to the culture as a whole
Demography
the scientific study of human population
Malthus theorem
population grows geometrically; food supply grows arithmetically. Result is disastrous.
New Malthusians
these are people today who believe that Malthus and his theorem was correct. They foresee a future planet with too many people and not enough food.
Anti Malthusians
these people do not believe in the Malthus theorem but believe in an alternate theory called the demographic transition.
Migration
the movement of people in and out of a specified area; this is one of three demographic variables used to project future populations
Mortality
deaths, or, the death rate; this is one of three demographic variables used to project future populations
Fertility
births, or, the birth rate; this is one of three demographic variables used to project future populations
Metropolis
a central city surrounded by smaller cities and suburbs
Megalopolis
two or more metropolises that overlap
Urbanization
the growth of urban areas; or, stated another way, the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in urban areas
Edge City
towns that appear suddenly on the edges of major cities; they consist of apartments, hotels, malls, and businesses, usually near the intersections of major highways
Three models of urban development
Concentric zone: urban area grows from downtown outward, diagram looks like a target with a bull’s eye (Chicago model)

Sector model: urban area grows up and around transportation arteries and natural boundaries such as lakes, rivers (Lake Charles model)

Multiple nuclei: several city centers (Los Angeles model)
concentric zone
urban area grows from downtown outward, diagram looks like a target with a bull’s eye (Chicago model)
sector model
urban area grows up and around transportation arteries and natural boundaries such as lakes, rivers (Lake Charles model)
multiple nuclei
several city centers (Los Angeles model)
Types of collective behavior
types include things such as fads, fashions, rumors, mass hysteria, riots, crowds, emerging social movements and mature social movements
social movement
an organized effort to create or resist change
Emerging social movement
the early stages of the social movement; things are often disorganized. Sociologists study these as well as the more mature social movements
Mature social movement
later stages of the social movement; the movement now has a bureaucracy, a stable structure, and officers who run the organization. Sociologists study these as well as the younger, emerging social movements
Types of social movements
alterative, redemptive, reformative, transformative
alterative
seeks to alter some particular behavior of people
redemptive
seeks total change of the individual
reformative
seeks to change or reform some aspect of society (a reform movement)
transformative
seeks to change the social order itself (a revolutionary movement)
Matabe virus
a fictional virus in the movie called Outbreak! but still a good example of an emerging virus (doctors don’t know what it is when it arrives; and, it mutates in different strains)
SARS
an emerging virus, and a real life example
Anthrax (types)
cutaneous (skin), inhalation (inhaling into lungs, it is fatal), digestive