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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Anomie
The loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
Applied sociology
Teh use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
Basic sociology
(Pure sociology)
Sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the funamental aspects of social phenomena
Clinical sociology
The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.
Conflict perspective
A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
Dramaturgical approach
A view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.
Dysfunction
An element or a process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.
Feminist view
A sociological approach that views inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Functionalist perspective
A sociological approach that emphasizes the way that parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
Ideal type
A construct or model for evaluatinng specific cases.
Interactionist perspective
A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole.
Latent function
Unconscious or unintended function; hidden purpose.
Macrosociology
Sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
Manifest function
Open, stated and conscious function.
Microsociology
Sociologica investigation that stresses study of small groups and often uses laboratory experimental studies.
Natural science
The study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change.
Nonverbal communication
The sending of messages through the use of posture, facial expressions and gestures.
Science
The body of knoledge obtained by methods based on systematic observations.
Social inequality
A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
Social science
The study of social features of humans and the ways they interact and change
Sociological imagination
An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.
Sociology
The systematic study of social behavior and human groups.
Theory
In sociology, a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
Verstehen
Teh German word for "understanding" or "insight"; used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions
Casual logic
The relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence in which one event leads to the other
Code of ethics
Teh standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
Content analysis
The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.
Control group
The subjects in an experiment who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher.
Control variable
A factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
Correlation
A relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other.
Cross-tabulation
A table that shows the relationship between two or more variables
Dependent variable
The variable in a causal relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable
Ethnography
The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
Experiment
An artificially created situation that allows the reseracher to manipulate variables
Experimental groups
The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable introduced by a researcher
Hawthorne effect
The unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects
Hypothesis
A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Independent variable
The variable in a causal relationship that causes or influences a change in a second variable
Interview
A face-to-face or telephone questioning of a respondent to obtain desired information
Mean
A number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values
Median
The midpoint or number that divides a series of values iinto two groups of equal numbers of values
Mode
Teh single most common value in a series of scores
Observation
A research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or closely watching a group or community
Operational definition
An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a reseracher to assess the concept
Percentage
A portion of 100
Qualitative research
Research that collects and reports datat primarily in numerical form
Qualitative research
Research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data
Quantitative research
Research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
Questionnaire
A printed or written form used to obtain desired information from a respondent
Random sample
A sample for which every member of the entire population has the same chance of being selected.
Reliability
The extent to which a measure provides consistent results
Research design
A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
Sample
A selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population
Scientific method
A systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem
Secondary analysis
A variety of research techniques that make use of previously existing and publicly accessible information and data
Survey
A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information concerning how people think and act.
Validity
The degree to which a scale or measure truly reflects the phenomenon under study
Value neutrality
Max Weber's term for objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data
Variable
A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions
Argot
Specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
Biligualism
The use of two or more languages in a particular setting, such as the workplace or schoolroom, treating each language as equally legitimate
Counterculture
A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
Cultural relativism
The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture
Cultural universal
A common practice or belief found in every culture
Culture
The totality of leraned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
Culture lag
A period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
Culture shock
The feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own
Diffusion
The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society
Discovery
The process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
Dominant ideology
A set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and plitical interests.
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
Folkway
A norm governing everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern
Formal norm
A norm that has been written down and that specifies strict punishments for violators
Globalization
The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exhange of ideas
Informal norm
A norm that is generally undertood but is not precisely recorded
Innovation
The process of introducing a new idea or object into a culture through discovery or invention
Invention
The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before
Language
An abstract system ofword meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; includes gestures and other nonverbal communication
Law
Governmental social control
Material culture
The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives
Mores
A norm deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
Nonmaterial culture
Ways of using material objects, as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication
Norm
An established standard of behavior maintained by a society
Sanction
A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
A hypothesis concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality. it holds that language is culturally determined
Society
A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture
Sociobiology
The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior
Subculture
A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and valutes that differs from the pattern of the larger society
Technology
Information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
Value
A collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper-or bad, undesirable, and improper-in a culture
Xenocentrism
The belief that he products, styles or ideas of one's society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere
Anticipatory socialization
Processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
Cognitive theory of development
Jean Piaget's theory that children's thought progresses through four stages of evelopment
Degradation ceremony
An aspect of the socialization process eithin some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humilating rituals
Dramaturgical approach
A view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers
Face-work
The efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment
Gender role
Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of a male or female
Generalized other
Teh attitudes, viewpints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior
Generalized other
The attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior
Impression management
The altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences
Looking-glass self
A concept that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions with others
Personality
A person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior
Resocialization
The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life
Rite of passage
A ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
Role taking
The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint
Self
A distinct identity that sets us apart from others
Significant other
An individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher
Socialization
Teh lifelong process in which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
Symbol
A gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication
Total institution
An institution that regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent