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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The basic idea behind feminism is that women and men should be
Accorded equal opportunities and respect.
____________ is used to describe the biological differences that distinguish males
from females, whereas ____________ denotes a social position.
Sex/ Gender
The study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other.
What are the two spheres?
Sex and Sexuality
Essentialism explains ____________ phenomena in terms of ____________
Social/ Natural
According to essentialists, men are more dominant in the scientific field because of
what type of difference?
Who they are in the natural world (biological difference)
According to Judith Lorber, differences between the sexes are not easy to explain
because gender isn’t natural, but rather is _____________
A Social Institution
Bob and Sue paint their baby’s room pink as soon as they find out that they are
having a girl. They are beginning to provide the baby with what?
Gender role
Which theoretical perspective assumed that every society had certain structures
that existed to fulfill some set of necessary functions?
Structural Functionalism
According to Parsons, the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern
societies because it fulfills the function of reproducing workers and the division of labor insures a
stable society. What did Parson call this theory?
Sex Role Theory
Feminist psychoanalyst Nancy Chodorow believes that if men share mothering
with women, ____________ relationships are possible.
Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of interactions and is a matter of active doing?
Microinteractonist Theories
Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nation, and
religion. Which group has made the case that the early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?
Black Feminists
Which group argues that sexuality in America is an expression of the unequal power balance between men and women?
Marxist Feminists
French philosopher Michel Foucault argued that there is no presocial or natural body. In other words, the body is “in the grip” of _______________
Cultural Practices
Foucault believed that the change in the view of homosexuality to one of
____________ was a result of the government trying to assert power over its people.
Interior androgyny
Until 1973, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological
Association listed homosexuality as __________________
Mental Disorder
Opponents of gay and lesbian couples claim that homosexuality is “unnatural” because they believe sex should only be about ______________
Although women now outnumber men in terms of college enrollment, men still dominate which fields?
Finance, law, and politics
Jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also called
Pink collar
What term refers to the invisible barriers women face when they enter more prestigious corporate worlds?
Glass Ceiling
When token men enter feminized jobs, they enjoy a quicker rise to the leadership positions. This is referred to as _______________
Glass Escalator
Race is not a fixed biological or natural reality; rather, it
Is a social construction.
Which act formalized the exclusive definition of whiteness by imposing
immigration restrictions based on a national origins quota system that limited the yearly number
of immigrants from each country?
Immigration Act of 1924
What term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and
unequal traits?
Racist thinking is characterized by the belief that ______________________
Members of separate races possess different and unequal human traits.
In the nineteenth-century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism
Scientific Based Racism
Phrenology refers to
Using differences in head formation as a basis for cataloging variation in race.
Social Darwinism was the evolutionary notion of __________________
“Survival of the Fittest”
What group believed that humans were one species, united under God?
Which group believed that different races were distinct species?
Which group did Darwin side with, claiming that the notion of different species of
humans was absurd?
What term refers to a pseudoscience of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they
pass on from generation to generation?
Nativists believed that restricting the immigration of certain groups would
1. Protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from so-called dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants.
Miscegenation refers to____________________
Interracial marriage
The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson upheld _____________
The Jim Crow system of segregation
The genetic variation that corresponds with geographic origins is much
____________ than people commonly believe.
Most Arabs in the United States are not Muslim but ____________, and about
20% of the U.S. Muslims are ____________.
Christian/ African American
About 35% of Muslims worldwide were born in _______________
Compared with 11% of the U.S. population as a whole, around 33% of Native
Americans die before age _______________
According to your text, which issues plague Native Americans as a whole?
Lowest average socioeconomic status
The majority of the Latinos in the United States come from ____________
In 1907, the United States barred immigration from what country, because its
people were seen as a threat to the American-born labor force?
Asians have been applauded for their smooth assimilation and are referred to as
“Model minority”
The legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity is referred to as:
The Supreme Court’s landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down what doctrine?
Separate but equal
Thoughts and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as _________
Your text defines poverty as a condition of deprivation due to ____________
Economic circumstances
Some policy experts believe that welfare creates more problems than it solves
because it discourages people from finding work. This is also known as _________________
Perverse Incentives
According to the culture of poverty theory, what happens once survival adaptations are in place?
1. They take on a life of their own and they hold poor people back when they are no longer advantageous
According to Daniel Patrick Moynihan, what is the root cause of African Americans’ economic problems?
The cultural arrangement of the black family is the cause, not the effect, of African-American economic problems.
What do policy experts mean by the terms perverse incentives and unintended consequences?
Pervasive incentives are reward structures that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproductive behavior. Unintended consequences are the result of a policy that was not anticipated fully at the time of implementation- particularly outcomes that are counter to the intentions of the policymakers.
According to the underclass thesis, the poor are ____________
1. Not only different form the mainstream society in their inability to take advantage of what mainstream society has to offer, but also are increasingly deviant, and even dangerous to the rest of us.
Which program shifted more of the responsibility of running welfare programs
onto individual states and mandated time limits for the number of months a person can receive aid?
The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA)
The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act is
also referred to as:
“The end of welfare as we know it.”
Hernstein and Murray argued that there is a relationship between high IQ and ______________
A study of Cherokee children whose income greatly increased due to legalized gambling on reservations found ______________
Within the 14% of Cherokee families that were lifted out of poverty, the children’s behavioral problems decreased, largely as a result of the additional time that parents now had to supervise their children.
What term describes the measurement of poverty where a household’s income
falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members?
Absolute poverty
Molly Orshansky used the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s recommendations for
the minimum amount of healthy food, estimated the cost for a variety of family types, and
multiplied this figure by a factor of three to measure __________________
The poverty line
When the official poverty line was first set, food made up the largest percentage of
household budgets. In today’s society, what now makes up the largest percentage?
Income-based measurements are deceptive because they hide the real influence of ____________
Significant variation in family wealth levels.
Which nation has one of the highest poverty rates in the advanced world?
The United States
According to your text, what drives American poverty rates?
Timing, institutional structure, culture history, and race.
What method is usually used to evaluate poverty?
The traditional income-based poverty measure.
What population was Oscar Lewis studying when he coined the term “culture of poverty”?
The poor