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57 Cards in this Set

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A relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth is called?
Social stratification
The feudal societies of Europe in the Middle ages are an example of an ? system of stratification.
Estate
The primary basis for stratification in the U.S. is?
Class
In 2007, in order for a person to be in the top 400 wealthiest people in the U.S. on has to have more than?
1.3 billion
According to the ? perspective, the most vital jobs in society usually receive the greatest economic rewards.
Functionalist
Which sociology theory argues that the elite shape societal beliefs and practices in order to make their own privileges appear legitimate and fair?
Conflict theory
? theory emphasizes cohesion in society, while ? theory emphasizes friction between groups.
Functionalist/Conflict
According to the modernization theory?
Economic development is dependent on technological change
According to ?, poverty results from the dependence of low income countries on wealthy nations.
Dependency theory
? theory explains global inequality using the characeristics of individual nations; ? theory argues no country or set of countries may be understood in isolation from the others.
Modernization/World systems
The complex system that includes a groups beliefs, values, dress, and way of life is called?
Culture
The theory that language determines other aspects of culture since language shapes the way that people perceive the world is called the?
Sapir Whorf hypothesis
The specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation are called?
Norms
The early sociologist who identified two different types of norms is?
William Graham Sumner
Folkways are?
The ordinary customs of different group cultures
Mores are?
Strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior
In every society the dominant culture is?
The culture of the most powerful group
? theorists are most likely to emphasize that cultural norms and beliefs integrate people into groups and create social bonds.
Functionalist
Which type of theorists is most likely to emphasize that culture serves the interest of powerful group in society?
Conflict Theory
The theoretical perspective that examines how culture creates group identity from diverse cultural meanings is ?
Symbolic Interaction
The feeling of disorientation one feels when placed in a MSC: NEW or rapidly changing cultural environment
Culture shock
Consists of non-tangible
things such as norms, laws, customs, values, beliefs, and ideas of a group of people
Non material culture
Consists of objects created in the society, e.g. the desk or bed you sit at when studying.
Material Culture
Characteristics of culture?
learned
shared
symbolic
taken for granted
varies across time and place
Elements of culture?
Norms
Values
Language
Beliefs
Tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to others.
Ethnocentrism
a society.

Segment of society that shares distinctive pattern
of mores, folkways, and values
that differs from larger society
Subculture
Subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
Counterculture
Penalties and rewards for
conduct concerning social norm
Sanctions
The process through which people learn the expectations of society
Socialization
What are the agents of socialization?
1. Family
2. Mass Media
3. Peers
4. Religion
5. Sports
6. Schools
The ? is a primary agent of socialization
Family
Agents of family socialization?
–It is the first source of a child’s socialization.
–It is where the child learns his self-identity.
–It introduces children to society’s expectations of
them.
–It teaches children the basic rights and wrongs,
practices, norms, and values of the culture they
live in.
? are those with whom you interact on equal terms, such as friends, fellow students, and coworkers
Peers
? is the process by which
different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society.
Social differentiation
? is a system in which a small elite group (owners of property and power) have total control over society’s resources.
Estate
? is a system where status is assigned based on one’s ascribed status.
Caste
? is a system based primarily on achieved status; however one’s ascribed status can matter.
Class
Three Dimensions to Stratification?
Class
Status
Party
? is a common term for social
class position as class is primarily measured in
economic terms, especially when social classes are
compared internationally.
Socioeconomic status
SES
Socioeconomic Status
? is what one owns minus debts
Wealth
? is movement between
generations
Intergenerational
? is movement within the same
generation.
Intragenerational
? is the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household.
Poverty Line
? is comprised those who have acquired considerable wealth within their own generation
Nouveau Rich
Jean Piaget believed what?
that learning was crucial to socialization but that imagination also had a critical role
Jean Piaget is associated with what theory?
Social Learning Theory
What are the mental categories that the mind organizes experiences into are?
Schema
What is the first part of Charles Horton Cooley's "looking glass self"?
how we think we appear to others
Young children use their senses to make discoveries
Sensorimotor
Children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas
Preoperational
Children engage in more logical thinking
Concrete operational
Adolescents became capable of sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a logical manner.
Formal operational
What are Piaget's cognitive development stages?
Sensormotor
Preoperational
Concrete operational
Formal operational
The two classical concepts that are associated with the work of William Grahm Sumner are?
folkways and ethnocentrism.
? is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.
Belief