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34 Cards in this Set

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People who live in a specific geographic territory, interact with one another, and share many elements of a common culture.
society
A process in which societies grow more complex in terms of technology, social structure, and cultural knowledge over time.
sociocultural evolution
A society in which people make their living by hunting, collecting wild foods, and fishing with simple technologies.
hunting-gathering society
A society that depends for its livelihood on domestic animals.
pastoral society
A society in which hand tools are used to grow domesticated crops.
horticultural society
A society that depends on crops raised with plows, draft animals, and intensive agricultural methods.
agrarian society
A society that relies on machines and advanced technology to produce and distribute food, information, goods, and services.
industrial society
A society where service industries and the manufacture of information and knowledge dominate the economy.
postinductrial society
The learned set of beliefts, values, norms, and material goods shared by group members.
culture
Artifacts, art, architecture, and other tangiible goods that people create and assign meanings.
material culture
Mental blueprints that serve as guidelines for group behavior.
nonmaterial culture
Anything to whilch group members assign meaning.
symbol
A complex system of symbols with conventional meanings that people use for communication.
language
Assertions about the nature of reality.
beliefs
Shared ideas about what is socially desirable.
Values
Expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide behavior of group members.
norms
Informal rules and expectations that guide peoples' everyday behavior.
folkways
Salient norms that people consider essential to the proper working of society.
mores
Formal rules enacted and enforced by the power of the state, which apply to members of society.
laws
Prohibitions against behaviors that most members of a group consider to be so repugnant they are unthinkable.
taboos
Penalties or rewards society uses to encourage conformity and punish deviance.
sanctions
Feelings of confusion and disorientation that occur when a person encounters a very different culture.
culture shock
The tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according to one's own cultural standards.
ethnocentrism
A perspective which asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards, not ours.
cultural relativism
Groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyles.
subcultures
Groups that reject the conventional wisdom and standards of behavior of the majority and provide alternatives to mainstream culture.
countercultures
A movement that encourages respect and appreciation for cultural differences
multiculturalism
The belief that European cultures have contributed the most to human knowledge and are superior to all others.
eurocentrism
The perspective that emphasizes the preeminence of African and African American culture in human development
afrocentrism
What people should do, according to group norms and values.
ideal culture
What people do in everyday social interaction.
real culture
Inconsistencies in a cultural system, especially in the relationship between technology and nonmaterial culture.
cultural lag
An approach that examines the relationship between a culture and its total environment.
cultural ecological approach
The domination of culturel industries by elite groups.
cultural hegemony