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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
status
role in society (can have many)
ascribed status
statuses of gender, race, and age that you are born with
achieved statuses
statuses of employment, mother, etc that we attain through our own actions
master status
dominant (most important) role that you play
subordinate statuses
all your other roles besides the master status
status inconsistency
the condition in which the same individual is given two conflicting status rankings (female doctor, low and high)
prescribed role
the set of expectations about how a person with a particular status should behave
role performance
how a person actually carries out their prescribed role
role conflict
when we are expected to play two different statuses at the same time(student athlete)
role set
an array of roles attatched to a particular status(college professor-researcher, teacher, mentor, etc)
role strain
stress caused from the incompatible demands from the roles of a single status
social group
collection of people who interact with one another and have a certain feeling of unity
social aggregate
a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with one another (audience)
primary group
group whose members interact informally for frienship's sake
secondary group
group whose members interact formally and expect to profit from one another
social institution
set of widely shared beliefs, norms, and procedures necessary for meeting the basic needs of society
sociocultural evolution
process of changing from a technologically simple society to a more complex one, with specific consequences for social and cultural life
hunting-gathering society
hunts animals and gathers plants as it's primary means of survival
pastoral society
domesticates and herds animals as primary source of food
horticultural society
produces food primarly by growing plants in small gardens
agricultural society
produces food primarily by using plows and draft animals on the farm
industrial society
produces food for subsistence primarily by using machines
postindustrial society
produces food so efficiently that high technology and service industry dominate the society
material culture
tangible aspect of culture, includes every conceivable kind of physical object produced by humans; reflect the nature of the society in which they were made
nonmaterial culture
intangible aspect of culture including knowledge, beliefs, norms, and values
norms
social rules that specify how people should behave
values
socially shared ideas about what is good, valued, and important
mores
strong norms that specify normal behavior and constitute demands, not just expectations
laws
formalized mores
sanctions
rewards for conforming to norms and punishments for violations of norms
cultural integration
the joining of various cultures into a coherent whole
multiculturalism
a state in which all subcultures in the same society are equal to one another
ethnocentrism
the attitude that one's own culture is superior to those of other peoples
cultural relativism
the belief that a culture must be understood on its own terms