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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the ordered relationships and patterned expectations that guide social interaction
social structure
a socially defined position in a social structure
status
all of the statuses a person has at a given time
status set
2 or more statuses that a society deems contradictory
status inconsistency
statuses assigned to individuals without reference to their abilities or efforts
ascribed statuses
statuses secured through effort and ability
achieved statuses
a status that dominates all other statuses
master statuses
a set of expectations, rights, and duties that are attached to a particular status
role
when people play a role but remain detached from it to avoid any negative aspects of the role
role distance
when a person's sense of identity is partially influenced by a role
role embracement
when a role becomes central to a person's identity and the person literally becomes the role he or she is playing
role merger
multiple roles that are attached to almost every status
role set
contradictory expectations and demands attached to a single role
role strain
when a person cannot fulfill the roles of one status without violating those of another
role conflict
the total web of an individual's relationships and group memberships
social network
relatively enduring clusters of values, norms, social statuses, roles, and groups that address fundamental social needs
social institutions
the mutual influence of 2 or more people on each other's behavior
social interaction
the process by which we form impressions of others and of ourselves
social perception
static and oversimplified ideas about a group or a social category
stereotypes
behaviors influenced or shaped by the presence of others
social acts
an area around our body that we reserve for ourselves, intimate acquaintances, and close friends
personal space
the body movements, gestures, and facial expressions that we use to communicate with others; includes voice innotation, overall body language, facial expression, distance from listener, touching, gestures, and eye contact
nonverbal communication
the idea that when people define situations as real they become real in their consequences
definition of the situation
analyzes social interaction as though participants were actors in an ongoing drama
dramaturgy
ways that people use revelation and concealment to make a favorable impression on others
impression management
a way of analyzing the "taken for granted" aspects that give meaning to social interaction
ethnomethodology
research by Granovetter
looked at job hunting by direct application, formal means, and personal contacts. found that personal contacts (or social networks) is more successful
patterns of social interaction
-exvhange
-cooperation
-competition
-conflict
-coercion
most basic form of social interaction. we seek to maximize rewards and minimize costs. expectation that gifts, recognition, love, and other favors will be returned
exchange
a pattern of interaction in which individuals, groups, and societies work together to achieve shared goals. sustains routine face to face encounters.
cooperation
a pattern of interaction in which both individuals and groups strive to achieve a shared goal. instead of joining with others to achieve valued goals, people or groups contest for them, recognizing that society's prizes are in limited supply and only one person or group can attain them
competition
a pattern of interaction in which people or groups struggle to achieve a "commonly prized object or goal"
conflict
this binds people together when they are compelled to interact with each other. the actualization of the threat of force that those with power sometimes use to achieve their objectives
coercion
ceremonies, like the wedding ceremony, that helps a person "break with the old role" and helps usher you into a new one
rites of passage
refer to verbal scripts and the use of certain words or questions that prompt the actor to respond in certain ways
cues
refer to a clever verbal device where you can get away with the things if you account for the criticism of it
accounts
intimate distance (up to 18"). reserved for those intimate in our lives
zone 1
personal distance (18"-4'). for those we know personally.
zone 2
social distance (4'-12'). for people we barely know.
zone 3
public distance (12'+). preferred distance for those in general public we don't know.
zone 4