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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social structure
The social patterns through which a society is organized; can be horizontal or vertical.
social inequality
The ways in which a society or group ranks people in a hierarchy.
status
The position that someone occupies in society.
status set
All the positions an individual occupies.
ascribed status
The status that someone is born with and has no control over.
achieved status
A status achieved at some point after birth, sometimes through one’s own efforts and sometimes because of good or bad luck.
master status
A status that is so important that it overrides other statuses a person may hold
status symbol
An object that signifies a particular status that a person holds.
role
The behavior expected of someone with a certain status.
social network
The totality of relationships that link us to other people and groups and through them to still other people and groups.
social group
Two or more people who regularly interact on the basis of mutual expectations and who share a common identity.
formal organization
A large group that follows explicit rules and procedures to achieve specific goals and tasks.
social institution
Patterns of beliefs and behavior that help a society meet its basic needs.
society
A group of people who live within a defined territory and who share a culture.
Gemeinschaft
A human community, particularly a small society with a strong sense of community and strong group ties.
Gesellschaft
A large society characterized by weak and impersonal social ties.
hunting-and-gathering societies
Societies of a few dozen members whose food is obtained from hunting animals and gathering plants and vegetation.
horticultural societies
Societies that use hoes and other simple tools to raise small amounts of crops.
pastoral societies
Societies that raise livestock as their primary source of food.
agricultural societies
Societies that cultivate large amounts of crops with plows and other relatively advanced tools and equipment.
industrial societies
Large societies that rely on machines and factories as their primary modes of economic production.
postindustrial societies
Societies in which information technology and service jobs have replaced machines and manufacturing jobs as the primary dimension of the economy.
social interaction
The ways in which people act with other people and react to how other people are acting.
background assumptions
Our understanding of the roles expected of people in a given encounter.
social construction of reality
The process by which individuals understand and create reality through their interaction with other individuals.
role conflict
The problems arising when a person has to deal with competing demands on two or more roles that the person is expected to play.
role strain
The problems arising when a person performing a role has to deal with competing demands on that role.
dramaturgical approach
Erving Goffman’s metaphor that likens social interaction to a performance in a dramatic production.
impression management
Erving Goffman’s term for the process whereby individuals who are interacting try to convey a favorable impression of themselves.
emotions
Feelings that begin with a stimulus and that often involve psychological changes and a desire to engage in specific actions.
nonverbal communication
Ways of communicating that do not involve talking.