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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ethnocentrism
tendency to judge other cultures using one's own as a standard
folkway
informal norm that is mildly punished when violated
heteronormative society
culture in which heterosexuality is accepted as the normal, taken-for-granted mode of sexual expression
institutionalized norm
pattern of behavior within existing social institutions that is widely accepted in society
intersexuals
individuals in whom sexual differentiation is either incomplete or ambiguous.
material culture
artifacts of a society, which represent adaptations to the social and physical environment
more
highly codified, formal, systematized norm that brings severe punishment when violated
nonmaterial culture
knowledge, beliefs, customs, values, morals, and symbols that are shared by members of a society and that distinguish the society from others
sanction
social response that punishes or otherwise discourages violations of a social norm
sexual dichotomy
belief that two biological sex categories, male and female, are permanent, universal, exhaustive, and mutually exlusive
sick role
set of norms governing how one is supposed to behave and what one is entitled to when sick
subculture
values, behaviors, and artifacts of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture
transexuals
people who identify with a different sex and sometimes undergo hormone treatment and surgery to change their sex
anticipatory socialization
process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future (often occurs during childhood)
collectivist culture
culture in which personal accomplishments are less important in the formation of identity than group membership
game stage
stage in the development of self during which a child acquires the ability to take the role of a group or community (the generalized other) and to conform his behavior to broad, social expectations
gender
physiological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness
generalized other
perspective of the larger society and its constituent values and attitudes
identity
essential aspect of who we are, consisting of our sense of self, gender, race, ethnicity, and religion
individualist culture
culture in which personal accomplishments are a more important component of one's self-concept than group membership
looking-glass self
sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others
play stage
stage in the development of self during which a child develops the ability to take A role, but only from the perspective of ONE person at a time
reflexive behavior
behavior in which the person initiating an action is the same as the person toward who the action is directed
resocialization
process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one
role taking
ability to see oneself from the perspective of others and to use that perspective in formulating one's own behavior
self
unique set of traits, behaviors and attitudes that distinguishes one person from the next; the active source and passive object of behavior
sex
biological maleness or femaleness
socialization
process through which one learns how to act according to the roles and expectations of a particular culture
total institution
place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life
tracking
grouping of students into different curricular programs, or tracks, based on an assessment of their academic abilities
account
statement designed to explain unanticipated, embarrassing or unacceptable behavior after the behavior has occurred
aligning action
action taken to restore an identity that has been damaged
back stage
area of social interaction away from the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior
cooling out
gently persuading someone who has lost face to accept a less desirable but still reasonable alternative identity
disclaimer
assertion designed to forestall any complaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statement that is about to occur
dramaturgy
study of social interaction as theater, in which people ("actors") project images ("play roles") in front of others ("audience")
embarassment
spontaneous feeling that is experienced when the identity someone is presenting is suddenly and unexpectedly discredited in front of others
front stage
area of social interaction where people perform and work to maintain appropriate impressions
impression management
act of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgements
performance team
set of individuals who cooperate in staging a performance that leads an audience to form an impression of one or all teammembers
stigma
deeply discrediting characteristics that is viewed as an obstacle to competent or morally trustworthy behavior