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32 Cards in this Set

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the scientific study of the size, composition, distribution, and changes in human population
demography
the extent of reproduction in a society
fertility
the number of live births per year for every 1000 people in a specific population
crude birthrate
the number of deaths per year for every 1000 people in a specific population
crude death rate
population movement across political boundaries
migration
the number of emigrants (people leaving a country) subtracted from the number of immigrants (people entering it) per 1000 population
migration rate
the numbers and types of people, calssified by characteristics such as age, sex, race, and ethnicity
composition of a population
how a population is dispersed geographically (e.g., the number of people per square mile)
population density
the number of males per 100 females
sex ratio
the difference between the numbers of people added to and subtracted from a particular population
growth rate
the number of years it takes for a population to double in size
doubling time
an organization dedicated to reaching the population replacement level of approximately 2 children per family
zero population growth (zpg)
population growth develops through 3 distinct stages: 1. high birth and death rates, 2. high birthrates and low death rates, and 3. low birth and death rates
demographic transition theory
the age cohort in the US comprising those born roughy between 1945 and 1964
baby boomers
the movement of masses of people from rural to urban areas and an increase in urban influence over all spheres of culture and society
urbanization
a city, or a city and its surrounding suburbs, with a population of 50,000 or more
metropolitan statistical areas (msa's)
the largest msa's (those containing over a million people)
consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (cmsa's)
a major urban area that includes a large central city surrounded by several smaller incorporated cities and suburbs that join to form one large recognizable municipality
metropolis
2 or more major metropolitan areas linked politically, economically, socially, and geographically
megalopolis
residential areas surrounding cities, which expand urban lifestyles into previously rural areas
suburbs
a subdivision of sociology that identifies, studies, and explains the specific traits of urban social phenomena
urban sociology
a community characterized by a relatively small population, a simple division of labor, face to face interaction, and informal social control
gemeinschaft
a society made up of a large population characterized by loose associations, a complex division of labor, secondary relationships, and formal social control
gesellschaft
characterized by tradition, unity, consensus of norms and values, and strong informal pressure to conform
mechanical solidarity
characterized by a highly sophisticated division of labor that makes individuals interdependent with one another
organic solidarity
socieities that emphasize tradition, consensus, and primary relationships
folk societies
societies based on change, diversity, and secondary relationships
urban societies
a subfield of sociology that focuses on recurring spatial, social, and cultural patterns within a particular social environment
human ecology
a community of organisms sharing the same physical environment
ecosystem
a way of life in which the city affects how people feel, think, and interact
urbanism
a theoretical model for analyzing the interdependence between humen beings and the physical environment
ecological perspective
an increase in the earth's overall average temperature due to a greenhouse effect produced by increased exposure to uv light
global warming