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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the definition of sociology?
the scientific study of society
What is Auguste Comte famous for?
considered founder of sociology; began positivism
What is positivism?
scientific methods applied to the study of society
What is Emile Durkheim famous for?
studying the issue of suicide
What did Durkheim discover in his studies?
males, singles, and Protestants were more likely to commit suicide
What is social integration?
degree to which a person has strong social ties
What is Max Weber famous for?
believed that the key to understanding society is to discover what is the dominant religion
What did Weber find in his studies?
Catholics resisted social change; Protestants were mor eopen to social change
What is Herbert Spencer famous for?
social Darwinism; pure sociology
What is social Darwinism?
society will evolve
What is Karl Marx famous for?
studying class welfare; applied sociology
What is WEB DuBois famous for?
first African American to recieve PhD at Harvard; studied race relations in the US; founded NAACP; wrote 1 book a year for over 20 years
What are the 3 theories?
1. conflict theory
2. functional theory
3. symbolic interactionist
When did sociology begin?
began in Europe in the 1800's
Why did sociology begin?
the Industrial Revolution (steam engine) brought on huge social change
What is functionalism?
the idea that society is composed of many parts, each part having a function, and this helps society maintain balance/equilibrium; changes happen slowly
What is a manifest function?
the direct reason for something ex.) prisons > punishment
What is s latent function?
unintended function ex.) prisons > community service
What is a dysfunction?
unintended consequences ex.) prisons > cost
What is poverty's function?
to keep goods cheap
What is the conflict theory?
idea that all social relations are driven by conflict/competition over scarce resourses ex.) money, power, time
What do conflict theorists believe is the reason for inequality?
the rich/powerful have structured society to benefit themselves
Does change happen slowly or quickly with the conflict theory?
quickly, sometimes with violence (uprisings)
What is the symbolic interactionalist theory?
symbols in culture need to be understood because understanding symbols = understanding behavior ex.) language, gestures, clothing, objects
What are the 8 steps of research?
1. Select a topic
2. Define the problem
3. Review the literature
4. Formulate a hypothesis
5. Develop a method for retrieving data
6. Gather Data
7. Write report
8. Publish findings
What is a hypothesis?
statement about the correlation between variables
What is needed for a good survey?
1. large random sample
2. both open and closed ended questions
3. confidentiality
4. neutral questions
What is an open ended question?
allow people to answer is their own words
What is a closed ended question?
gives a specific choice for answers (yes or no)
How can data be obtained?
1. surveys
2. participant observation
3. secondary analysis
4. documents
5. experiments
6. unobrusive methods (cameras)
What is participant observation?
going into the field, playing a role, and observing
What is secondary analysis?
looking at data/research that has already been collected and reanalyizng it
What is an independent variable?
the thing that you believe will cause change in the dependent variable
What is a dependent variable?
the object of change