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45 Cards in this Set

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Robert Merton
refined the functionalist perspective
distinguished between mainfest and latent functions
Manifest=intended & Latent=unintended Theory
Strain Theory-Unable to acheive Deviance-coined the phrase "self-fulfilling prophecy-role model-student of Talcott Parsons
self-fulfilling prophecy
is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true; in this it is distinguished from other profhecies
Talcott Parsons
refined the functionalist perspective
structuralfunctionalism.
Best known Sociologist in the
he United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world.
empirical, or empirically based,
dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. That is, empirical data are data that are produced by experiment or observation
A reference group
is a sociological concept referring to a group to which another group is compared.
Social mobility
is the degree to which, in a given society, an individual's social status can change throughout the course of his or her life (known as intra-generational mobility), or the degree to which that individual's offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (inter-generational mobility).
Role Strain
tension among the roles connected to a single status."
Role Conflict
a conflict among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses." Example: "People in modern, high-income countries juggle many responsibilities demanded by their various statuses and roles. As most mothers can testify both parenting and working outside the home are physically and emotionally draining. Sociologists thus recognize role conflict as conflict among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses" (Macionis 90).
Comte
believed that applying the scientific method could > social life.
of progress and order, of change and stability--are the twin pillars of his systems.
Marx - credited with first elaborating the conflict perspective. saw society as 2 groups= the bourgeoisie or capitolist class and the Proletariate or working class who owned only their ability to labor which they sold to the bourgeoisie in order to earn a living
struggle rather than peaceful growth was the engine of progress; strife was the father of all things, and social conflict the core of historical process.
Durkheim= study of suicide
men were creatures whose desires were unlimited
Durkheim calls anomie, a tern that refers to a condition of relative normlessness in a whole society or in some of its component groups
Social dysfunctions
undesirable consequences
conflict perspective
groups with clashing interests who engage in a struggle over scarce social resources.
Macro-level= the functionalist and conflict perspectives they examine social institutions and large-scale social processess
Micro-level= the symbolic-interaction perspective=focus on the dynamics and meanings of face to face interactions between people and small groups.
George Mead
micro-level and who explored the social influences on the dev of a sense of self, and Charles Cooley=looking gleass self
George Mead=sense of self
Charles Horton Cooley=
looking glass self(how we think others see us)
Ervine Goffman
was a symbolic-interactionist who called his approach to understanding social life dramaturgical analysis=suggesting that members of a society are like actors playing out roles on the social stage.
Durkheim produced one of the first studies that attempted to apply the scientific method to the study of society and social relationships.
Comte credited eith first coining the term sociology.= improvments could be made in social life.
Functionalist perspective views society as a relatively stable and orderly system complsed of interdependent and interrelated parts
emphasizes social stability, social cohesion, and the survival of a society.
Conflict perspective emphasizes the role of social conflict in society. groups competing
Conflict is viewed as positive because it can lead to the betterment of society
cause and effect
a relationship between 2 or more variables in which 1 varible influences or explains the change in the other varible/s
CORRELATION
When 2 or more variables change value together in the same or opposite direction
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
A variable whose value is believed to depend upon or to be caused by another varible.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
A variable that causes or produces change in the value of another (dependent) variable
NEGATIVE CORRELATION
A relationship between 2 variables such that in the majority of cases, when one variable increases in value, the other decreases in value
PERFECT POSITIVE CORRELATION
A relationship between 2 varibles such that they both change together and in the same direction in all cases.
OPERATIONALIZE
varible to be measured
POSITIVE CORRELATION
A relationship between 2 variables such that they both change together in the same direction in the majority of cases
PARTICIPANT
A researcher ovserves while joining in activity
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
descriptive
numerical data
PERFECT POSITIVE CORRELATION
IN EVERY CASE THERE IS A INCREASE OR DECREASE
PERFECT NEG CORRELATION
EVERY CASE THERE IS AN > THAT CAUSES A <
NEG CORRELATION(CURVILINEAR FASHION)
THE MAJORITY BUT NOT ALL
CORRELATION OF ZERO
SHOWS NO PREDICTABLE PATTERN
4 METHODS SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IS CONDUCTED
1.SURVEYS
2.EXPERIMENTS
3.FIELD RESEARCH
4.SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF EXISTING DATA
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
EMPHASIZE THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL DATA
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
EMPHASIZES UNCOVERING THE SUBJECTIVE MEANINGS THAT GUIDE AND UNDERLIE SOCIAL INTERACTION,TYPES, FORMS, AND STRUCTURING OF SOCIAL INTERACTION ITSELF.
SECONDARY ANALYSIS
CAN INVOLVE EITHER OR BOTH QUAN OR QUAL
SURVEY
QUESTIONNAIRE OR INTERVIEW
ATTITUDES OR BELIEFS
EXPERIMENTS
CAREFULLY DESIGNED AND CONTROLLED ATTEMPTS, USUALLY CONDUCTED IN A LABORATORY
FIELD RESEARCH
THE STUDY OF SOCIAL LIFE IN ITS NATURAL SETTING.
(INSIDERS POINT OF VIEW)
SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF EXISTING DATA
RESEARCHERS USE OF DATA AND INFO THAT WAS INITIALLY COLLECTED BY PREVIOUS RESEARCHERS.(REDUCE RESEARCH TIME)
DEDUCTIVE MODEL
GENERAL THEORY THEN MOVES TO COLLECTION OF APPRO DATA TO TEST THEORY
INDUCTIVE (GROUNDED) MODEL
BEGINS WITH SPECIFIC OVSERVATIONS THEN EXPLAINS THE OBSERVATIONS AND THEIR MEANINGS
THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROCESS PROCEEDS IN A SYSTEMATIC FASHION IN ONE OF TWO WAYS
THE DEDUCTIVE MODEL OR THE INDUCTIVE MODEL