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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
applied sociology
the use of sociology to solve problems
the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference
norms taken extremely seriously such as a person who steals, rapes, or kills
a group whose values, beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
achieved status
voluntary earnings or accomplishments to determine position
status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
feminist conflict theory
feminists stress that men and women should have equal rights
protestant ethic
self-denying way of life that saves money and investing in the surplus to make more
looking glass self: 1. We imagine how we appear to those around us. 2. We interpret others reactions 3. We develop a self-concept
Paul Ekman
dtermined that there are six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise
latent functions
unintended beneficial consequences of peoples actions
nonmaterial culture
a groups way of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world and doing behavior, including language and other forms of interaction
material culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing and jewlery
the use of ones own culture as a yardstick for juding the ways of other inviduals or societies
norms that are not strictly enforced
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
states that material culture usually changes first, then nonmaterial culture lagging playing a game of catch up
sapir-whorf hypothesis
hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
a type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
the extent to which an operational definition measures what is intended to measure
qualititive research
research in which the emphasis is placed on observing, describing, and interpreting peoples behaviors
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
scully and Morolla
interviewed prisoners
Hawthorne Effect
the change in behavior when people know they are being studied
did studys on tea rooms where men had sex while having normal lives
secondary groups
large, anonymous, formal and impersonal
reference group
the groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves
primary group
a group characterized by intimate, long term, face to face association
the alignment of some members of a group against others
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
group dynamics
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
noted the significance of group size
democratic leader
a leader who leads by trying to reach a consensus
instrumental leader
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals
asch experiment
determined how influential groups are in our lives
milgram experiment
experiment to find out at what point people refuse to participate
"blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity
used stigma to refer to characteristics
control theory
the idea that two control systems-inner controls and outer controls- work against our tendencies to deviate
showed how tied people are to society
strain theory
Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
false consciousness
Karl Marx's term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
how do we know that positions with the highest rewards are most imp
world system theory
economic and political connections that tie the worlds countries together
caste system
a form of social stratification in which ones status is determined by birtha and is lifelong
C. Wright Mills
criticized for insisting that power was concentrated in the hands of a few
white collar crime
crimes commited by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations
fuller and schoenburger
studied womens salaries and the 11 percent decrease of salary from men
glass escalator
the mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher-level positions more desirable work assignments and higher salaries
glass ceiling
the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
boomerang children
dependent children
reports of men raping their wives