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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the agents of socialization?
1. family
2. school
3.peer groups
4. mass media
What theory did John Watson come up with?
And what does it mean?
Behaviorism
It means that people are equally human, only differing in cultural patterns
Explain Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
pre-conventional-what feels good to me

conventional-what pleases others

post-conventional-they start to think about freedom,liberty and justice
What three parts make up Freud's model of human personality?
1.id-innate human drives

2.superego-cultural values and norms

3.ego-resolves competition between demands of id and restraints of superego
Explain Piaget's theory of cognitive development(four stages)?
1.sensorimotor-(birth-2) senses

2.preoperational-(2-7) uses of simple language and symbols

3.concrete-operational(7-11) connection

4.formal operational(12+)depending on others. 30% of people never reach this stage
What are Thomas & Chess' characteristics when measuring temperament?
1.activity level
2.rhymicity
3.approach-withdraw
4.adaptibility
5.threshhold of responsiviness
6.intensity of reaction
7.quality of mood
8.distractibility
9.attention span
What does Cooley mean by "looking glass self?"
we see ourselves as we imagine others see us
Name Erikson's 8 stages of development and what the challenges for each stage are?
1.infancy-trust vs mistrust
2.toddlerhood-autonomy vs doubt and shame
3.preschool-iniative vs guilt
4.preadolescence-industriousness vs inferiority
5.adolescence-identity vs confusion
6.young adulthood-intimacy vs isolation
7.middle adulthood-making a difference vs self absorbtion
8.old age-integrity vs despair
define conformity?
pursuing conventional goals through approved means
define stigma?
a powerful negative label that greatly changes a person's self concept and social identity
define socialization?
the way individuals develop their humanity and particular identities
define rehabilitation?
a program for reforming the offender to prevent subsequent offenses
define retribution?
an act of moral venegeance by which society inflicts suffering on an offender comparable to that caused by the offense.
define societal protection?
a means by which society renders an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through incarceration or permently by execution
define medicalization of deviance?
and give examples?
the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition.

ex.alcholism,overeating,drug addition,and child abuse
define Hirschi's control theory and what are the four types of social control?
social control depends on imaging the consequences of one's behavior
1.attachment
2.commitment
3.involvement
4.belief
explain Durkheim's essential functions of deviance?
1.affirms cultural values and norms
2.clarifies moral boundaries
3.promotes social unity
4.encourages social change
explain Merton's strain theory of deviance?
the extent and kind of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals
define hate crimes?
criminal act against a person or person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
explain Carol Gilligan's research on moral development between boys and girls?
the two sexes use different standards of rightness.
boys-have justice perspective
girls-have a care and responsibility perspective.
define wealth?
the total value of money and other assets minus outstanding debts
define income?
wages or salary from work and earnings from investments
explain primary deviance?
and give examples?
violation that has slight reaction from others and little effect on person's self concept.
ex. skipping school, underage drinking
explain secondary deviance?
and give example?
a person repeatedly viloates a norm and begins to take on a deviant identity.
ex. when people define someone as a boozer then omit him from their social circle, he then might start to hang around people who accept his behavior.
define poverty?
a deprivation of resources that is lifethreatening
define relative poverty?
the deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more
what is poverty level?
3 times the cost of food for the number of people in family
define deterrence?
the use of punishment to discourage crimality
define deviance
the recognized violation of cultural norms
explain welfare with the guildelines of the government?
federal government provides funding,states set their own qualifications and benefits but they must limit assistance to 2 consecutive years with a lifetime limit of 5 years