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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
long term causes of World War I
Nationalism--set nation against nation
Imperialism--Geramny, Britain, France, Italy, and Russia scrambled for colonies and competed for pwoer in regions
Militarism-Expanded armies and navies for war
Triple ALliance
Gernany, AUstria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple ENtente
France, Britain, and Rusia
Immediate cause of WWI
Archduke of aUSTRIA visits Austria-Hungary and is shot by Serbian nationalist, who watned bosnia to break away from austria-hungary and join w/ serbia
-austria hungary accuses serbian government and declared war on serbia
immediate alliances cause of war
Austria-Hunary declares war on serbia
-russia mobilizes, or prepares for war
-germany called on russia to cancel order to mobilize, but russia does not so germany delcares war on russia
-germany declares war on russia's ally, france
-germany armies march through neutral belgium on their war to france and britain promised to defend belgium, so britain declares war on germany
trench warfare
soldiers in trenches during WWI
submarine warfare
German U-boats attacked any ship that entered or left British ports-torpedeoed enemy and neutral ships bc they feared their safety if they searched it, which was against the law anyway
-wilson vowed to hold germany responsible if germans caused americans to die or lose property
sinking of lusitania
germans torpedoed american ship (neutral)
germany apoligized and agreed to stop attacking bc it feared war w/ US
Zimmerman telegram
secre German message intercepted by US which offered German help to mexico against the US if the US declared war on Germany
result of the zimmerman telegram
caused US to declare war on Germany
reasons for US involvement in WWI
-language and istory ties w/ Britain
-democratic political system ties w/ Britain and Brance
-Britain was major trading partner
---ZImmerman telegram
Fourteen Points
President Wilson's war aims for America
-ex freedom of seas, reduced armaments, and an end to secret treaties between nations
League of Nations
Wilson called for league to peacefully settle future disputes between countries
Versailles Treaty
-end to the war when germany surrendered
-very harsh on Germany
-germany had to pay reparations to allies for starting the war
-had to accept idea of League of Nations
america's isolation after WWI
Did not join League of Nations--kept away from european affairs, raised tariff rates, and restricted immigration
after wwI endedd, rising standards of living resulted in what?
growth of middle class, increase in single-family homes, and development of the suburbs
Factors of 1920s prosperity
-rise of automobile
-improved production ex. assembly line
-development of other induries to make vacuum cleaners, refridgerators, and toasters
--government policies favoring business
what were the 3 republican presidents during the 1920s that favored business policies
coolidge, harding and hoover
laissez-faire capitalism
that government should interfere as little as pissible in affairs of business
Babe Ruth
baseball hero during 1920s
charles lindburgh
first person to fly solo across the Atlantic
Amelia Earhart
Disappeared in a daring attempt to fly solo around the world
"harlem renaissance"
during 1920s in harlem, NY where afrian americans expressed new pride in their culture. ex. jazz
langston hughes and countee cullen
african american poets in the harlem renaissance
21st amendment
end to prohibition b/c demand for illegal liquor led to the growth of organized crime
Red Scare
a fear that communism, which took over Russia in 1917, would take over the US--caused hostility toward immigrants
Ku Klux Klan of 1920s
reemerged during 1920s and were hostile to african americans, catholics, jews, and immigrants
Causes of the Great Depression
--Overproduction~manufacturers making more goods than americans could afford to buy
--Shaky Banking~Government did not regulate banks---consumers bought more they could afford and many could not pay back their debts
--Stock market~People bought stocks, hoping to get rich--bought stocks on credit promising to pay the rest later--when stock market crashed, many couldnt pay
why did the stock market crash in 1929?
stock prices suddenly fell---people tried to sell stocks but no one wanted to buy them-
what was the result of the stock market crash?
after the crash people had no money to spend and many businesses could not selll their goods. some were forced to shut down. as ppl lost jobs, they had even less money to spend, leading to more businesses faulures and forcing even more ppl out of work
dust bowl
In the Great plains, farmers were affected by droughts--crops dried up and soil turned to dust-famers driven from their lands and went to become migrant workers in california
Predident Herbert Hoover during Great depression
felt federal government should not directly interfere in the economy--believed private organizations could provide enough help--eventually changed his mind but his programs provided too little too late. many americans were angry that hoover failed to act
New Deal
established idea that federal government had major responsibility for making sure that the nation's economy runs smoothly
3 R's of Roosevelt's New Deal
Relief--short-term measures to tide people over until the economy recovered
Recovery---Helped restore the economy by rebuilding people's purchasing powers
Reform----Corrected defects to ensure that severe depression would never happen again
Civilian Conservation Corps, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, and Works Progress Administration
parts of new deal to help the jobless
National Recovery Administration
enforced codes that regulated wages, prices, and working conditions
Social Secuirty Act
set up a system of pensions for the elderly, unemployed, and people with disabilities (new deal)
Roosevelt courtpacking
roosevelt tried to appoint enough new justices in supreme court to give him majority since many of his new deal programs were being turned down--congress voted down the plan
Neutrality Acts
Congress passed them to avoid involvement in future wars--prohibited americans from selling arms to warring nations
Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler
dictator of Italy and of Germany--decame allies and with japan too
how did world war II start??
after invading czechaslovakia, hitler claimed he wanted no more land but then invaded poland after becoming allies with soviet union--two days later britain and france declared war on germany
axis powers
italy, japan, germany, and 6 other nations
allied powers
britain, france, soviet union, US, china, and 45 other nations eventually
how did the US become involved in the war??
japanese planes laucnhed a surprise attack on US pleet in pearl harbor, Hawaii. Next day, Roosevelt asked congress to declare war on Japan, and then Germany declared war on US
west coast japanese during world war II
were put into relocation/internmant camps inland until end of war bc of fear of spying or sabatage
when did segregation in the military end?
where did americans defeat germany??
north africa
who did they free next??
Americans freed french from germans
V-E day
when germans surrendered in Germany
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
President Truman decides to drop atomic bomb to avoid millions of casualties--japan surrenders just after these attacks
Nuremberg Trials
Nazis were put on trial--most leaders were found guilt and hanged
what did the nuremberg trials show?
individuals were responsible for their actions, even in times of war, and would be held to certain universal standards
how was germany divided after WWII?
into four occupational zones: occupied by the armies of the US, great britain, france, and the soviet union
japan after WWII
Douglas MacArthur was assigned job of reforming the japanese gov. and society---forbidden from having large army or nacy--could not use nuclear weapons--made japan democracy
superpowers and advantages
US and Soviet Union
US: economic power and atomic bomb
USSR: WOrld's largest army
european colonies
struggle for democracy against dictatorship and collapse of european power led colonies in asia and africa to seek their independence
Joseph Stalin
communist leader of soviet union
how did stalin break his promise after WWII?
he promised to withdraw soviet troops from europe and hold free elections, but instead he placed communist governments in power throughout eastern europe
Iron CUrtain
division of Eastern and Western Europe--trade was cut off
West=not communist
Truman Doctrine
when communists threatened Greece and Turkey, President truman gave countries military aid --support of nations fighting communism
Marshall Plan
Plan of economic aid to Western European countries to help rebuild them and to better resist communism
berlin airlift
West Germany, with the American, British, and French area, and East Germany, with the communist USSR area, was separated by a wall. Western allies began a massive airlift supply to the city
north atlantic treaty organization formed by the US and ten Western EUropean countries to protect western europe from a communist invasion
Warsaw Pact
in response to NATO, soviet union formed its own military alliance
the fall of chinaaa
since the 1920s, communists were trying to overthrow china's nationalist government---after world war II, fighting between nationaist and communists grew fiecers. communists, led by mao zedong, finally defeated the nationalist government in 1949. him and his followers established communism in china
korean war
after world war II korea was divided into a northern and souterhn part-north=communist and south=non-communist 1950--north korea invaded south korea to try to turn it communist-With UN approval president truman ordered US forces into south korea to resist the invasion--US forces entered north korea and advanced to chinese border--china entered war in support of north korea-Truman rejected General MacArthur's recommendation to use nuclear weapons---fighting ended w/ peace agreement, leaving korea divded exactly as it had been before the war
joe mcCarthy
mccarthy claimed he knew names of hundreds of communists in government and he causes ppl to lose jobs and he frightened many peeps buthe had no evidence so booya
making charges about a person's loyalty without offering any evidence
Soviet's first man-made sateelite that had ability to fire nuclear weapons at US
fidel castro
established communist government in CUba,
John F kennedy
big failure when he resued to supply the invading rebels in cuba with air support and they were defeated
cuban missile crisis
spy planes discovered the soviets were secretly building bases in cuba w/ nuclear missiles aimed at the us. us bombers and missiles got ready. kennedy imposed a blockade around cuba. both sides threatened each other with nuclear war, but soviet leader nikita kruschec withdrew the missiles in exchange for a promise by kennedy to never invade cuba agian
vietnam war
vietnam was divided into two at a peace conference when it became free from the french--communist north and non-communist south--vietnam was suppose to bereunited after free elections but it wasnt so vietcong launched a guerilla war w/ northern to reunite the country under communist rule
war under president kennedy
he believed if south vietnam fell to communism, other nations would. he sent militar adivsers there
war under president johnson
turning point---congress gavwe johnson permission to halt north vietnamese aggression---troops fought there but anti-war protests grew at home
war under nixon
promised to pring peace but war dragged on so nixon gradually removed forces then worked out agreement known as Paris Peace Acords. America withdrew from south vietnam. two years later, communists took voer
baby boom
a large number of children born in the late 1940s and 1950s after the war which created a demand for housing, education, and realted services
Brown Vs board of ed
NAACP filed case on behalf of african american student who was denied admission to whtie public school near her home-supreme court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. led to the end of racial segregation in public schools
Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibited discrimination on the basis of race or religion in business involved in interstate commerce
voting rights act
prohibited practices that were still in use, especially in southern states, to prevent african americans from voting
Miranda vs. Arizona
court rule that police could not interrogate a person accused of a crime without first telling the person of his or her right to have a lawyer present or to remain silent
Great Society
programs of Kennedy and Johnson---civil rights, education, reduce poverty, medicare, aid to education, and assistance to inner cities and rural districts
practice of giving in in order to preserve peace
affirmative action
johnson programs to promote hiring of minorities and women--colleges and jobs
American Indian Movement
seized wounded knee
eruption over vietnam war
youths burned draft cards, students joined in protests and demonstrations, closing undreds of colleges in 1969
war powers act
requires president to seek congressional approval soon after sending troops overseas
what did nixon and later presidents have to deal with
inflation (oil companies raise prices)
severe inflation and high unemployment causes by countires exporting oil limited their production, raising world oil prices
carter in iran
hostage crisis---iran threw out shan of iran in us embassy-carter seemed powerless and lost election to regan
federal deficit
government pays for by borrowing--
regans business
cut federal probrams, eliminated regulation on business, and cut federal taxes---increased military spending, which greatly increased national debt
Iran-Contra Scandal
regan watned to aid ppl in nicaragua to fight communism, but congress said no, so some high officials paid for arms for iran to aid the nicaraguans--reagan himself was cleared of wrongdoing
mikhail gorbachev
new soviet leader introduced greater opennes and freedom in soviet union society---eventually led to collapse of communism in soviet union and independence for the nations of eastern europe. in 1989, the berlin wall was torn down and geramny was reunited. in 1991, the soviet union itself split apart
Panama Canal Treaty
gave canal to panama
camp david accords
carter invided egypt and israel to sign peace treaty
Persian Gulf War
bush sent US forces to drive Iraqi troops out of Kuwait. --freed kuwait and protected world oil supplies.
North American Free Trade Agreement--tariffs between Mexico and US are gradually being reduced--Canada already enjoys free trade w/ US