Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is NASA?
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It was created after Russia launced Sputnik to catch up with the Soviet's new Space Technology.
What is the NDEA?
The National Defense Education Act. This provided lots of funds to teach people Science, Math, and Foreign Language in order to get more technologically advanced then the Soviets.
Think NASA, Sputnik, and Education.
What was Sputnik?
Sputnik was the first satellite sent into orbit by the Soviets. It enabled the Soviets to be more advanced in Missile technology then the Americans.
What were the ICBMs?
The Intercontinental Ballisic Missiles could deliver bombs anywhere in the world.
What was Massive Retaliation?
The US wanted to threaten to use nuclear weapons if a Communist state tried to seize territory by force. A big retaliation.
Beating with a textbook.
What was McCarthyism?
Joseph R. McCarthy's tactic of searching for disloyalty (the Reds) based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears. Also Vague and unfounded charges and damaging reputations. (1952)
What was the McCarren Act?
Also called the Internal Security Act. Happened in 1950. Created by Senator Pat McCarren. It offered a way to fight "treachery, infiltration, sabotage, and terrorism." It also made it illegal to "combine, conspire, or agree with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to the establishment of a totalitarian gov't."
Also made all communist organizations and people register with the gov't, and could not get passports. Could also be arrested in case of a national emergency.
Arrest people, illegal to conspire
What was Project Venona?
In 1946 American crytographers working for a project cracked the Soviet spy code and they read approx. 3,000 messages between Moscow and the US. Confirmed the existence of Soviet Spies.
The Rosenbergs
Who were the Rosenbergs?
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were accused of selling the secrets of the Atomic Bomb to the Soviets in 1946. They were condemned to death for espionage. Gov't never realeased their evidence, but they were guilty.
What was the Cold War?
The competition between the US and the Soviet Union for worldwide power, influence, and prestige that lasted from 1946 to 1990.
What was the meeting at Potsdam?
It was a meeting near Berlin with Truman, Stalin, and Attlee. It was in 1945, and they discussed how to let Germany recover so they wouldn't fall to communism, and let the Soviets take some reparations from Germany. They also agreed on the new Polish border that was actually defined. Stalin didn't agree with the reparations of Germany, but Truman threatened him with the Atomic Bomb. Stalin thought Truman was trying to bully him, but took Truman's side nevertheless.
What was the Iron Curtain?
An imaginary line separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West.
What were Satellite Nations?
They did anything that the Soviets did. In a way, they were orbiting around Russia. These countries were the Communist countries of Eastern Europe.
Who was George Kennan?
He was a diplomat that advised Truman to contain communist expansion through something called the Long Telegram in 1946.
What was the Long Telegram?
The message written by George Kennan in 1946 to Truman advising him to contain Communist expansion. Told Truman that if the Soviets couldn't expand, their Communism would eventually fall apart, and that Communism could be beaten without going to war.
What is Containment?
Keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic, and military actions.
George Kennan, The Long Telegram
Who was Dean Acheson?
Was a presidential advisor, and when the Soviets demanded control of the straits of the Dardanelles, said this was the first step in the Soviet plan to control the Mideast, and advised Truman to protect the Mediterranean. (1946)
What was the Truman Doctrine?
In 1947, Truman went before Congress to ask for $400 million to fight Communist agression in Greece and Turkey. Its goal was to aid "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Wanted to help the US fight communism worldwide.
What was the Marshall Plan?
Written by Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, which would giver European Nations American aid to rebuild their economies. Both were essential. Soviets rejected the offer. Instead, Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine, really helped Western Europe.
What was the Berlin Airlift?
The US wanted to keep West Berlin alive without provoking war with the Soviets. In June, 1948, Truman had American cargo planes for 11 months, supply Berliners with food, medicine, and coal. Ended 1949, with 2 million tons of supplies.
What was NATO?
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in April 1949 included 12 countries that agreed to come to the aid of any member that was attacked.
What was the Warsaw Pact?
To get back at NATO, the Soviets created their own Eastern European Military Alliance system called the Warsaw Pact.
Who was Mao Zedong?
He was a communist leader in China.
Who was Chiang Kai-shek?
He was a nationlist leader fighting against Mao Zedong in China.
What was the concept of Limited War?
A war fought to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism.
What was HUAC?
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover in 1947. Created in 1938 to investigate both Communist and Fascist activities in the US. Called the House Un-American Activities Committee. Hoover urged HUAC to hold public hearings wiretapped tons of telephones, and infiltrated Communist groups.
Who was Alger Hiss?
A prominent government official who attended Yalta, and had taken part in organizing the UN. Whittaker Chambers testified in court that Alger Hiss had given him secret documents from the State Department. Hiss denied this, but Chambers had evidence in a pumpkin, and Hiss was arrested for Perjury.
Pumpkin Papers
Who was Joseph R. McCarthy?
A little-known Wisconsin Senator. Had a list of so-called communists but he never showed it to anyone. Hated communists and wildly accussed everybody he could think of for being a communist.
What was a Fallout Shelter?
A shelter families built in their backyards to protect themselves from Nuclear fallout, or radiation from a bomb if the Soviets dropped one.
Who was Dwight D. Eisenhower?
Was the president after Harry Truman, and was a general who had organized the D-day invasion of World War 2. The nations wanted someone who could lead their country in its Cold War struggle against communism. Convinced key to winning was a strong economy, and be prepared to use all sorts of atomic weapons to get more bang for your buck.
Who was John Foster Dulles?
The Secretary of State under Dwight D. Eisenhower. defended the President's policy of being willing to threaten nuclear war to maintain the peace.
What was Brinkmanship?
The act of pushing a problem and be willing to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down, but not actually fight anyone.
Who was Nakita Krushchev?
Was the Soviet leader who took over after Stalin. He was communist and first said that Communist and Nationalist nations would live together in peace, but CIA obtained a copy of his speech telling the Soviets that he would bury us and that our children would live under communism.
Who was Francis Gary Powers?
The pilot of a U-2 spy plane from the US snapping shots of Soviet military zones and sending info back to the US. He was shot down by Krushchev, and during a summit was brought out to prove that the US was spying on the Soviets.
Spy Plane
What was a Military-Industrial Complex?
A new relationship had developed between the military and the defense industries. They had a big influence on the world.
Who was Joseph Stalin?
The leader of the Soviets. He was extremely paranoid, agressive, and a communist.
Who was Harry S. Truman?
Was the president of the US. Dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Who was Douglas MacArthur?
A General in World War 2
What was the Declaration of a Liberate Europe?
Decided at the Yalta Conference, Europe was free to choose which type of government they wanted to live under.
Who was Richard Nixon?
The Vice-President with Harry Truman
What were Developing Nations?
Nations with a primarily agricultural economies, many of which blamed European imperialism, and American Capitalism for their problems. Leaders looked to the Soviets as a model of how to shape their countries.