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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Perception
A general term for the process by which people come to understand one another
Nonverbal Behavior
Behavior that reveals a person's feelings without words
Attribution Theory
A group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior
Personal Attribution
Attribution to internal character of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, or etc
Situational Attribution
Attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck
Covariation Principle
A principle of attribution theory holding that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when a behavior occurs and absent when it does not
Do other people agree?
Does that person also believe that?
Does that people always believe it?
Personal Attribution
Something about the stranger caused the behavior
Stimulus Attribution
Something about the stimulus caused the behavior
Availability Heuristic
The tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind
False-consensuc effect
The tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributions, and behavior
Base-rate fallacy
The finding that people are relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in form of numerical base rate
Counterfactual Thinking
A tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occured but did not
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situation on other people's behavior
Actor-observer effect
The tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes and the behavior of others to personal causes
Belief in a just world
The belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims
Impression Formation
The process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression
Information Integration Theory
The theory that impressions are based on (1) perceiver dispositions and (2) a weighted average of a target person's traits
The tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information
Implicit Personality Theory
A network of assumptions people make about the relationships among traits and behavior
Central Traits
Traits that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions
Primacy Effects
The tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on impressions than information presented later
Need for Closure
A desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty, which heightens the importance of first impressions
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs
Belief Perseverance
The tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
The process by which one's expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations
Self-Perception Theory
The theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion
Overjustification Effect
The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors
A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea
Attitude Scale
Questionnaire to measure a person's attitude
Bogus Pipeline
A phony lie-detector
Facial Electromyograph (EMG)
Records facial muscle activity
Implicit Attitude
An attitude one is not aware of
Implicit Association Test
A covert measure of unconscious attitudes by pairing two words
Theory of Planned Behavior
The theory that attitudes toward a specific behavior combine with subjective norms and perceived control to influence a person's actions
The process by which attitudes are changed
Central Route to Persuasion
Thinks about facts and arguments
Peripheral Route of Persuasion
Thinks about superficial cues
Thinking about and scrutinizing the arguments contained in a persuasive communication
Sleeper Effect
A delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source
Need for Cognition
A personality variable that distinguishes people on the basis of how much they enjoy effortful cognitive activities
Like to analyze situations, search for clues
Like peripheral cues, attractiveness, speaker's reputation, other's reactions
Inoculation Hypothesis
The idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument increases later resistance to that argument
Psychological Reactance
The theory that people react against threats to their freedom by asserting themselves and perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that holding inconsistent cognitions arouses psychological tension that people become motivated to reduce
Insufficient Justification
A condition in which people freely perform an attitude-discrepant behavior without receiving a large reward
Insufficient Deterrence
A condition in which people refrain from engaging in a desirable activity, even when only mild punishment is threatened
Six Primary Facial Emotions
Happiness,Fear, Sadness, Anger, Surprise, and Disgust
People accurately perceive a stranger's personality based on brief interaction
Thin Slices
Important outcomes can be predicted accurately from observing a few seconds of behavior
Distancing Behavior
Not smiling and looking away
Holistic Thought
Context or field as a while
Analytic Thought
Detachment of the object from the context
Relative Judgment
Line of same proportion
Absolute Judgment
Line of same length