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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is an behaviourally based attitude?
an attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
what is confomity?
a change in behaviour due to the real or imagined influence of other people
what is the Yale Attitude Change approach?
the study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages; researchers in this tradition focus on "who said what to whom"--that is, on the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience
what is public compliance?
conforming to other people's behaviour publicly, without necessarily believing in what we are doing or saying
what is subjective norms
people's beliefs about how those they care about will view the behaviour in question
what is the
elaboration likelihood model?
the theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change; the central route occurs when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and the peripheral route occurs when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
what is rationalization trap?
the potential for dissonance reduction to produce a succession of self-justifications that ultimately result in a chain of stupid or immoral actions
what is an intrapersonal conflict?
tension within one individual due to two or more incompatible goals (e.g., a parent's desires to stay home with his or her children and to pursue a career)
what is the social impact theory?
the theory that conforming to social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of other people in a group
what is negotiation?
a form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when it is agreed on by both parties
what is the tit-for-tat strategy?
a means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did (cooperatively or competitively) on the previous trial
what is heuristic-systematic model of persuasion?
the theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change; people either process the merits of arguments known as systematic processing or use mental shortcuts (heuristics), such as "Experts are always right," known as heuristic processing
what is mixed-motive conflict?
conflict in which both parties can gain by cooperating but in which one side can gain even more by competing against its opponent
What is Cognitive Dissonance?
a feeling of discomfort caused by the realization that one's behaviour is inconsistent with one's attitudes or that one holds two conflicting attitudes
what is the central route to persuasion?

the case whereby people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments; this occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication
what is split cable market tests?
techniques used to test the effectiveness of advertising, whereby advertisers, in conjunction with cable television companies and grocery stores, show a commercial to a randomly selected group of people and then see whether these people are more likely to buy the product than those who did not see the commercial are
what is reactance theory?
the idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behaviour is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused; people can reduce this reactance by performing the threatened behaviour
what is informational social influence?
conforming because we believe that others' interpretation of a situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action
what is a conjuctive task?
a group task in which performance depends on how well the least talented member does
what is affectively based attitude?
an attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object
what is nonsocial group?
a group in which two or more people are in the same place at the same time but are not interacting with each other (e.g., fans at a baseball game)
what is the contingency theory of leadership?
the theory that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group
what is external justification?
person's reason or explanation for his or her dissonant behaviour that resides outside the individual (e.g., in order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment)
What is counterattitudinal advocacy?
The process that occurs when a person states an opinion or attitude that runs counter to his or her private belief or attitude
what is self-justification?
the tendency to justify one's actions in order to maintain one's self-esteem
what is process loss?
any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
what are idiosyncrasy credits?
the credits a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms; if enough idiosyncrasy credits are earned, the person can, on occasion, behave deviantly without retribution from the group
What is internal justification
the reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g., one's attitude or behaviour)
what is persuasive communication?
communication (e.g., a speech or television ad) advocating a particular side of an issue
what is insufficient punishment?
the dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object
what is a relationship-oriented leader
a leader who is concerned primarily with the feelings of and relationships between the workers
what is obedience?
conformity in response to the commands of an authority figure
what is a disjunctive task?
a group task in which performance depends on how well the most talented member does
what is classical conditioning?
the case whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly experienced along with a neutral stimulus that does not, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
What is compliance?
a change in behaviour due to a direct request from another person
What is justification of effort?
the tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain
what is a cognitively based attitude?
an attitude based primarily on people's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
what is the reciprocity norm?
a social norm stating that receiving anything positive from another person requires you to reciprocate (or behave similarly) in response
what is the public goods dilemma?
a social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good
what is deindividualism?
the loosening of normal constraints on behavior, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts
what is peripheral route to persuasion?
the case whereby people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues
What is lowballing??
an unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price
what is the theory of reasoned action?
a theory holding that the best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviours are that person's attitudes toward specific behaviours, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control
What is postdecision dissonance?
dissonance that is inevitably aroused after a person makes a decision; in this situation, dissonance is typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluing the rejected alternatives
what is an attitude?
an evaluation of a person, object, or idea
what is a task-oriented leader?
a leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with feelings of and relationships between the workers
what are subliminal messages?
words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but that supposedly influence people's judgments, attitudes, and behaviours
what is self-discrepancy theory?
the theory that we become distressed when our sense of who we are, our actual self, is discrepant from our personal standards or desired self-conceptions (ie drinking str8 edger)
what is self-verification theory?
a theory suggesting that people have a need to seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether the self-concept is positive or negative; in some circumstances, this tendency can conflict with the desire to uphold a favorable view of oneself
what is attitude inoculation
the process of making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
what is zero-sum conflict?
conflict in which one side's gain is always the other side's loss, as in athletic contests
what are social norms?
the implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviours, values, and beliefs of its members
what is door-in-the-face technique?
a technique to get people to comply with a request, whereby people are presented first with a large request, which they are expected to refuse, and then with a smaller, more reasonable request, to which it is hoped they will acquiesce (NO WAY! SLAM DOOR!)
what are social groups?
groups in which two or more people are interacting with each other and are interdependent, in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on each other
what is self-persuasion?
a long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification
what is self-completion theory?
the theory that when people experience a threat to a valued aspect of their self-concept, or identity, they become highly motivated to seek social recognition of that identity (recording gets bad review = work harder!)
what is normative social influence?
the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them; this type of conformity results in public compliance with but not necessarily private acceptance of the group's beliefs and behaviours
what is group polarization?
the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members
what is the need for cognition?
a personality variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
what is a divisible versus a unitary task
divisible tasks are those that can be broken down into different sub-tasks performed by individual members, whereas unitary tasks are those in which no division of labor is feasible
what are roles?
shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
what is minority influence?
the case where a minority of group members influence the behaviour or beliefs of the majority
what is self-affirmation theory ?
a theory suggesting that people will reduce the impact of a dissonance-arousing threat to their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some dimension unrelated to the threat (bad guitarist - but I am an awesome guitar player)
what is contagion?
the rapid transmission of emotions or behaviours through a crowd
what is mindless conformity?
obeying internalized social norms without deliberating about one's actions
what is attitude accessibility?
the strength of the association between an object and a person's evaluation of that object; accessibility is measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about an issue or object
what is an social dilemma
a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual, if chosen by most people, will have harmful effects on everyone
what is social facilitation?
the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
what is the foot-in-the-door technique?
a technique to get people to comply with a request, whereby people are presented first with a small request, to which they are expected to acquiesce, followed by a larger request, to which it is hoped they also acquiesce
what is integrative solution
a solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests; each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side
what is groupthink?
a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
What is fear-arousing communications?
persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears
what is instrumental conditioning?
the case whereby behaviours that people freely choose to perform increase or decrease in frequency, depending on whether they are followed by positive reinforcement or punishment
what is self-enhancement?
a tendency to hold unrealistically positive views about ourselves
what is the commons dilemma?
a social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in moderation, but which will disappear if overused
what is an additive task?
a task in which all group members perform the same job and the final product is a sum of all their contributions, such as the total amount of noise made by a group of cheerleaders
what is social loafing?
the tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated
what is mass psychogenic illness?
the occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
what is great person theory?
the theory that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the nature of the situation facing the leader
what is self-evaluation maintenance theory?
the theory that one's self-concept can be threatened by another individual's behaviour and that the level of threat is determined by both the closeness of the other individual and the personal relevance of the behaviour (guitar envy)
what is private acceptance?
conforming to other people's behaviour out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right