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64 Cards in this Set

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hindsight bias
tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome, the degree to which one could have forseen how it would come out
Social psychology is distinct from folk wisdom because…
it is empirical
methodology
process of doing social psychology research
hypotheses
testable beliefs about the relationship between events
BIRGing
Basking In the Reflective Glory of others
correlational studies
studies of naturally occuring relationships
experimental
studies that examine cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors
direction problem
what causes what?
3rd variable problem
2 variables can be related because they're both related to 3rd variable
experimental method
method for exploring causal relationship between 2 or more variable
independent variable
manipulated by researchers, the presumed cause of the change in other variable
dependent variable
the variable being measured by researchers, to see if change is dependent
demand characteristics
experimenter gives subtle cues to participants as to how to repond
self-concept
person's answer to the question "Who am I?", collection of beliefs we hold about who we are
self-esteem
person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
self schemas
beliefs about the self that organize the way we view ourselves and the world
actual self
self schema: person you are right now
ideal self
self schema: the self it is your goal to be
ought self
self schema: self it is your duty to be
feared self
self schema: self you fear becoming
self-discrepancy theory
view of self includes how the self schemas relate to each other, if your actual self does not meet a self-guide, we have a discrepancy, result in an emotional reaction
actual vs. ideal
reaction: sad
actual vs. ought
reaction: anxious
actual vs. feared
reaction: relief
sources of self-concept
responses from others, social comparisons, reflections from others, our culture
looking glass self
we view ourselves through eyes of others and incorporate their perceptions of us into our self-concept
social comparisons
we assess our qualities by comparing ourselves to others
reflections from others
how we view close others is important for how we view ourselves
CORFing
Cutting Off Reflective Failure of others
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory
If close other excels in unimportant activity, then we BIRG. If close other excels in personally relevant activity, then people feel envy
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory outcomes
distance self from person, decrease importance of activity, can lead to sabotage
Western Cultures view of self
independent, personal attributes, self is stable, goal is to be unique, promote own goals
Non-Western view of self
interdependent, group membership, self is flexible, goal is to belong, promote group goals
locus of control
degree outcomes are viewed internally controlled orexternally controlled
internal locus of control
take credit for success and failure, self as independent, have "can do" mentality
extenal locus of control
believe rewards and punishments occur independent of what they do (helplessness)
learned helplessness
when animals and people experience uncontrollable bad events, they tend to feel helpless and resigned (apathy)
self-serving bias
tendency to perceive oneself favorably, excuse failures, take credit for success, and consider self better than average
false consensus
overestimate commonality of our opinions and undesirable behavior
false uniqueness
tendency to underestimate the commonality of our abilities and desirable behaviors
Barnum effect
we accept as valid favorable descriptions of our personality that are generally true of everyone
ultimate self-serving bias
tend to see self as less self serving than others
self-presentation
through self-presentation we attempt to present who we are or who we want other people to believe we are to other people
impression management
occurs when we orchestrate a carefully designed presentation of the self to fit a particular goal or need
self-monitoring
being attuned to the way one presents oneself and adjusting behavior to create desired impression
self handicapping
process whereby people produce excuses for their performance
overconfidence phenomenon
tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's belief
confirmation bias
tendency to searvh for information that confirms one's preconceptions
heuristic
a rule-of-thumb strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements
representativeness heuristic
presuming despite contrary odds that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member
availability heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory, letter K
counterfactual thinking
imaging alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't
When do we go beyond heuristic?
when motivated, as when others affect our outcome or when we are accountable
self-fulfilling prophecy
people's expectations lead them to act in ways that cause others to confirm their beliefs
attitude
favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior
ABC's of attitudes
Affect (feelings), Behavior, Cognition (thoughts)
When do attitudes predict behavior?
when attitude is specific to behavior, when attitudes are made salient
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
if people first agree to a small request, later they will comply with a larger request
door-in-the-face phenomenon
first making a very large request makes people more likely to agree to a small rquest
norm of reciprocity
we feel we should concede if other person did
low-ball technique
people who agree to small request will still comply when the requester "ups the anti"
cognitive dissonance
tension that arises when one is aware of two inconsistent cognitions, accounts for responses when people have well-defined attitudes
self perception theory
when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them by looking at our behavior, accounts for responses when people's attitudes are vague or ambiguous
role
set of norms that define how people in a given social position ought to behave