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82 Cards in this Set

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Milgram:
change setting
no drop in obedience
Caldini Summary:
compliance techniques
(amway corp, flowers in airport)
EXPERIMENT: art ratings when Joe and another person there/ Joe leaves and in one come back with coke for just him and in another for other guys as well/ then asks other to buy raffel tickets/ count # tickets sold
Stone et al. summary:
Sexual habits experiment
Experiment:one of three conditions/ video tape/just write down/just fill out survey feeling sexual habits
-mindful and commitment conditions publically preach so hold firm to that belief (most dissonance)
-more subj. in that group bought condoms
Gibson and Harito Fatouros
EXPERIMENT:studies of teaching hate to people/did a case study war crimes/
Victim proximity affect obedience Milgram:
1.REMOTE FEEDBACK
2.VOICE FEEDBACK
3.PROXIMITY
4.TOUCH PROXIMITY
1.bang on wall 300 then silence 350
-26/40 went all way (XXX)
2.complaints heard

3.victim same room
-16/40 obeyed (40%)
4.hold learner hand down while recieve shocks
-12/40 obeyed (30%)
Milgram:
new experimenter
-friendly=> no change obedience if liked or disliked
Milgram:
E left room
sharp drop in obedience
Milgram:
women subj.
women just as obedient as men (or higher level even)
Milgram:
exper. endede on learner demand
small but not signif. drop in obedience
Milgram:
subj. allowed select shock level
-spontaneously up shock level (fit their common sense model of teaching)
-majority used lower levl shock avaliable
Milgram:
learner demand shock;E says no
no Ss continued when E said no
-100% obeidience
Milgram:
ordinary man
sharp drop in obedience
Milgram:
confederate give shocks himself
-all subj. protested/physically restrained confed.
Milgram:
subj refused to shock
-authority as victim
-contridictory orders two confederates
Milgram:
presence others
1.PEERS REBEL
2.PEERS ADMINISTER SHOCKS
1.influnce has an effect
-peers protest=>10% obey E!!
2.93% obey
-confederate obeys orders/subj monitor tasks
Milgram: Subj. obedience
1.SITUATIONAL DEMANDS
2.ATTRIBUTIONS
3.MICRO-FOCUS
4.DISSUSIONS RESPONSIBILITY
5.TRUST
6.MORAL FOCUS
7.ANTHROPOMORPHIZING LAB
1.situation subj. in
2.responsibility not on me- subj. adjust way thought victim and own behavior- devalue victim
3.only small element in task focus on this lose sight big pic.
4.small piece not truly responsible for their actions- link in chain
5.trust= E knows best
6.others not around less likely to do it
7.E made me continue; change char. situation particular way
Milgram: Subj. obedience
B)Authority suborniate relationship
1.LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY
a)DEFINITION OF REALITY
b)AGENTIC STATE
2.CONFOUNDS
a)EXPERT AUTHORITY
b)COERCIVE AUTIORITY
3.NO RELATIONSHIP PERSONALITY AND SITUATION!!!!
1.
a)defines situation for subj(i must know)
b)being subordinate get state mind makes you agent to authority
2.
a)believe in them trust
b)never threatned but told to continue/ discounted when Ss said learner hurting
Milgram:
unethical???
-deception
-elicit emotional stress indiv.
-Ss not free to withdrawl at will****
Milgram:
true experiment??
NO!!!
-lacks random assignment
-no control
Zimbardo: grasshopper study
-very nice experimenter vs mean one
-like them more not nice
-doing something for mean person so think they are good
Aronson and Mills: discussion group sex
-severe vs. mild vs. no initation groups
-heard sample tape (boring) sex activity insects (30 min)
-rate liking for group
-sever group=>like group most
-others gave mod. to neutral ratings
Mrs. Keech
dissonence= when would didnt flood they claimed they saved world/ up beliefs even more
diss. explain attitude change
when feel diss then attitude change takes that away
Bem:
1.RADICAL BEHAVIORISM
2.ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS F'S FINDINGS
3.IMPORTANCE DIFF FROM F
1.based on operent conditioning
-attitude generated on spot based on self observation!!!
2.told someone very little pay like it=> much have liked it
3.no adverse arousal
-no external diss. just observe behavior own
Self-perception attitude chage
when based on self-observation
Autokinetic effect
optical illusion stationary
-sit room/see light move couple inch.
-depend on structure retna
Sherif's procedure
light move dark room-effects max dont know room
Sherif:
exposure to others affects opinions
Ss influnced by others opinions (behavior change)
4 variations dissonace theory:
1.FREEDOM OF CHOICE
2.COMMITMENT
3.AVERSIVE CONSEQUENCES
4.PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY
1."he made me do it"
-indiv. freely results in diss/ forced= diss avoided
2."I did in, no one knows"
-which options used? actually engage in behavior PUBLIC=COMMITMENT
3."i did it, no harm done"
-no bad consequences (stone et al.)
4."Did it wasnt my fault"
-commit idea/freedom choice
-feel responsable outcome
-forsee it- hold self responsible cant blame self
-group setting- part of group not held fully responsible
Sherif:
make rating alone after been in group
after with group effects last
Interp Sherif:
-exper. destmonstrate social norms actually form
-people behavior affected by others
-Ss believed in their ratings
Effects confederates last??
-persisted after one year and through 8 rotations fo confederates
Asch finding:
-found people behavior affected by others
Newcomb procedure
-survey political attitudes incoming class
-repeat survey anually until graduation
-corr. study
what Newcomb found
-political views become more liberal
-completely reversed by senior year
interp Newcomb results:
-exposed to radical
-younger adopt views senior
-(+) rewards adopt liberal view (social group)
-attitudes linked instrumental funciton
-social function
Newcomb results:
those did have contact with parents retained political opinions and women that believed in them as well
reference group
group with which one identifies and hold common attitudes with
Asch vs. Sherif methods
Asch: line length easily see diff

Sherif: Spot in wall disputable
Sum Asch findings
1.OUTCOME
2.YIELDING PRODUCES STRESS
3.REASONS FOR YIELDING
4.NOT YIELDING ALSO PRODUCE STRESS
1.3 trials start to go wrong
-3/4 gave at least 1 wrong answer
-1/3 gave wrong answer more half trials
-much more conformity than Asch expected
2.looked anxious-report confused
3.reluctant to appear diff but know rite
-few actually see lines as majority did
4.didnt fell good after
Deviance costly:
1.FESTINGER: JOHNNY ROCO STUDY
2.SCHACHER ET AL: MODEL PLANE BUILDING
3.FEEDMAN & DOBB: "UNIQUE PERSONALITY"
1.what to do about a JD: throw in prison or what
-Johnny hard ass= reject him by end no talk to him
2.deviant= lots communication initally
-by end not talk to him= group gives him less desirable job
3.no need have consensus- 1 person group unique background=> recieve electric shock later!!!
what got greater attitude change
with justification
only paid a $1
Dissonance:Festinger and Carlsmith
(procedure)
a)turn spools on tray (45 min)
b)tell subj. study aspects task affects spool turning performance
-accomplice sit wait room tell them about study
c)tell them participated in study enjoyed ti alot
-paid $1 or $20 (IV)
d)just task ratings no person in wait room (DV)
Festinger and Carlsmith:
cog elements
engage in counter attitudinal behavior
-tell someone intersting and enjoyable
-opposite what you thought
Festinger and Carlsmith
state when inconsistent thoughts arise
arousal
feel (-) state
Festinger and Carlsmith:
4 means of dissonance lowered
a)AVIODANCE:avoid friend in hospital with lung cancer if smoker
b)ADDITION:add consence elements/seek info support own position
c)MINIMIZATION:try lower importance of dissonance elements
d)CHANGE:change attitude no longer have dissonance
Festinger and Carlsmith:
attitude change and incentives
1.INVERSE RELATIONSHIP BTW REWARD(incentive) AND ATTITUDE CHANGE(more $ less attitude change)
2.RESTORE COG CONSISTENCY:attitude change
-counterattitudinal behavior allows you to have consistency
Festinger and Carlsmith:
interp results
-inverse relationship=>said intersting but wasnt
-attitude discrepent behavior=> counterattitudinal
-$20 sufficient justification=>
dissonance gone
-$1 was insufficient justification=> lower dissonance via attitude change
ELM 3 means influence attitudes
1.provide persuasive arguement
2.provide salient and peripheral cues
3.manip. audiance's motivation/abiliy
1.only useful up quality argue. provide &audiance motivated & cog. ability attend to it
2.no mitvation or ability communicator var:credibility(trusted)/attractiveness
3.harder importance values nature to subj. use cog. sources and time to do this
written message most effective
-complex/ think logically
audiance intelligence influence persuasion
-give better quality message- intelligent audiance persuaded
-give lower quality message- not very effective
-IQ: up see flaws better less "yield" to message/ better comprehend
self esteem affect persuasion
-similar to intelligence
-up SE gen comprehend message up confident (may not yield)
-down SE trouble/relly saying- want approval "yield"to it
need for cog.
-differ need for cog.
-up vs. down- look shortcuts
-up ignores superfical/looks contents
Elaboration Likelihood Model
1.central
2.peripheral
1.though process going on when exposed to audio/visual model
-effortful arguement based thinking-visual aid graph
2.absense argue. logic/ reason ableness
-superficial stuff/pics/heuristics
conditions present central processing to occur
1.MOTIVATION:attitude issue has to be relevant to audiance

2.ABILITY:process info
EX:have ability not motivated (tired)
NO!!!
modeling and observational learn and attitudes
watch and imitate others
EX:political attitudes model parents
5 functions of attitudes
1.INSTRUMENTAL OR UTILITARIAN:gain reward and aviod punishment
2.EGO-DEFENSIVE:protect self-esteem
3.KNOWLEDGE:helps order and assim. info
4.SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT:helps estb. social identity and foster smooth relationships with others
5.VALUE EXPRESSIVE:reflects core values and ideas one self
instrumental or opreant conditioning
voluntary behaviors get reward and punishment
La Piere's study
Corr study
serving Asian customers
-251resturants across US=only 1 refused service
-128 responed survey 98% said refuse service to Asians
-very little correspondence in study
attitudes and behavior linked?
not linked!!!
up specific behavior
1. specificity matching
2. aggregation
1.must measure at same leve of specifity both gen or both specific

2.meausre several times
Fishbein and Ajzan's: Theory of Reasoned Action
1.VOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR: determined by 2 factors
A)ATTITUDES: about behavior
B)SUBJECTIVE NORMS:what others expect you to do
4 communicator variables in persuasion
1.CREDIBILITY:beliability enhances persuasiveness

2.OTHER VAR.
->STATUS: seen know more
->ATTRACTIVENESS:model (pay atten. to)
->EXPERTISE: #1 Dr. reccommended brand
Mere exposure effect
liking up with repeat exposure to stimuli
elements in fear message to be sucessful
a)MUST AROUSE SUBSTANTIAL FEAR: convinced happen to them unless follow advice
b)RECIPIENT MUST BELIEVE THAT COMPLIANCE WILL LOWER RISK
will work!!!!
1 vs. 2 sided arguements
???
message repetion influence persuasion
like (MEE) but to much good thing?
-can be overdone/audiance bored persuasion down
-use repetition with variance
face to face vs. mass media communication
1.TALK TO EACH OTHER:immediate atten (door to door) hard to ignore!!!
2.WRITTEN MESSAGE:newspapers, articles, ads, etc. reach large audiance
- easy tune out!!!!!
3.AUDIO/VISUAL:narrator/scene/ up work simple message
5 char. of attitudes
1.EVALUATIVE:like/dislike
2.DIRECTIONAL:focused on target
3.ENDURING:relatively stable
4.INFLUENCE AND MOTIVATE BEHAVIOR: (+)att.=motivated (-)att.=stay away from
5.LEARNED:assumed
Asch:
confomity when added second naieve subj
conformity down to 10%
Asch:
when had confederate agree with majority
down conformity but only when deviant confed. present
Asch:
assoc. btw group size and conformity
conformity up as majority up
-level of majority max=3
why?
SUSPICION on subj. part maybe their being influenced (people before me)
ATTN to what others saying before them
sum conditions create conformity
1.TASK DIFFICULT:uncertianty=conform
2.MAJORITY IS UNANIMOUS:all people cant be wrong
3.VALUED GROUP:want to be part of that group/respect you!
4.IDENTIFIABILITY:can you be seen/subj. to approval of group
5.FEAR:fear down confidence up dependncy on others=more likely conform
sum conditions reduce conformity
1.EXPERTISE AND CONFIDENCE:on given issue=stand up for self more
2.SOCIAL STATUS:up=less volunerable others opinions
3.COMMITMENT:previously state opinion in public=down likely show this
4.LIKING:dont like source social influence down conformity
(minority as targe of influence, depend on majority for info and social acceptance)
compliance vs. acceptance
1.PUBLIC COMPLIANCE:over behaioral change=>majority position
2.PRIVATE ACCEPTANCE:convert attitude change=>maj. position
3.INDEPENDENT DIMENSIONS: sherif/newcomb:compliance and acceptance
Asch:compliance only
1.normative influence vs. 2.informational influence
1.pressure conform from others expectations

2.sense what is reality
conditions cause normative influence
A)GROUP IMPROTANT:want max social outcomes with group/get along
B)GROUP DEMANDS CONFORMITY:deviants punished
C)CONDITIONS ELICITING NORMATIVE INFLUENCE: public responding, anticipation future interactions, dependence for rewards
informational influence likely to emerge
A)EVALUATE NEEDS:social comparison, low confidence depends on group more
B)KNOWLEDGEABLE MAJORITY:majority knows more!!!!
1.altruism and 2.prosocial behavior
1.helping without offer or expectation of benefit
2.behavior that intentionally helps another (reward)
social exchange theory char. human interactions
as transactions up rewards and minimize costs
according to social exchange theory why do we help others
more reward for helping at little cost to us
-external rewards=help future, friends
-internal rewards=see someone hurt help down your distress about situation
1.reciprocity norm
2.social responsibility norm
1.give get something back
2.people socially responsible norm independent how you are treated in the future (help elderly/child)
reward=obey rules society approves of